Session - Advances in instrumentation and future missions for space weather science or operation
A. BenMoussa, M. Barthelemy, A. Hilgers
Space based and ground based observations are required to satisfy many of the space weather service user needs and to allow new scientific research underpinning space weather. Scientific requirements are usually driven by the need to discover new observational features in the data. Instruments needed for operational space weather can usually benefit from scientific heritage but are driven by requirements very different from most scientific missions and therefore also require new development.
Contributions are solicited on topics relevant to future instruments and mission developments for either scientific research or operational space weather including, but not limited to, lessons learned from past and current instruments, possible new instrument or mission concepts including nano-satellites, future needs and opportunities, and international collaborations.
Monday November 23, 14:30 - 15:30, Delvaux
Monday November 23, 16:30 - 18:00, Delvaux
Monday November 23, 15:30 - 16:30, Poster area
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Talks : Time schedule
Monday November 23, 14:30 - 15:30, Delvaux
Monday November 23, 16:30 - 18:00, Delvaux
|14:30||Space Weather Observations for Operational Services||Onsager, T et al.||Invited Oral|
| ||T. Onsager, T. Berger, D. Biesecker, and H. J. Singer|
| ||NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center|
| ||The provision of space weather services requires the continuous and robust availability of a global network of specific ground-based and space-based measurements. Although many key observations today are obtained from research instruments, many of these measurements may not be available beyond the life of the research mission and many are not supported for robust, real-time availability. Furthermore, observational priorities for research are typically decided based on a broad, grass-roots scientific consensus, whereas priorities for operational-service measurements must be driven by specific user needs. This presentation will describe NOAA’s efforts, working with interagency and international partners, to determine service-oriented observing priorities and to work collaboratively to achieve the required availability of key observations. This effort includes working with U.S. government agencies, bilaterally with various countries, and within international organizations, such as the WMO, UNCOPUOS, and ISES.|
|14:45||Space Weather observations from hosted payload sensors at geosynchronous orbit||Pitchford, D et al.||Oral|
| ||Dave Pitchford|
| ||Three SES operated commercial telecommunications satellites are equipped with small Space Environment sensors as hosted payloads. Two spacecraft have small surface charging sensors and the third has a more capable CEASE (Compact Environmental Anomaly SEnsor) device. These sensors are described and observations made by them are presented in order to demonstrate the utility of such sensors for engineering and scientific purposes. Finally some comments regarding requirements for future sensors and prospects for hosting them on commercial spacecraft are made.|
|15:00||Impact of FORMOSAT-7 on Ionospheric Space Weather Monitoring||Lee, I et al.||Oral|
| ||I-Te Lee, Jann-Yenq Tiger Liu, Tie-Yue Liu, Chung-Huei Vicky Chu, Guey-Shin Chang|
| || Meteorological R&D Center, Central Weather Bureau, Taipei, Taiwan;  National Space Organization, Hsinchu, Taiwan|
| ||The FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (F3/C) constellation has provided ionospheric electron density profiles with high vertical resolution through radio occultation measurements to reconstruct the three-dimensional structures of global ionospheric electron density which almost impossible be made in the past decade. Based on the success of F3/C mission in providing reliable observations for atmospheric and ionospheric researches, the National Space Organization in Taiwan has proposed a follow-on mission named FORMOSAT-7. The FORMOSAT-7 program is a Taiwan-U.S. collaboration mission between National Space Organization of Taiwan and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of United States. It deploys an operational constellation system of twelve satellites to receive US GPS, Russian GLONASS and European Galileo system signals to perform occultation observations. Slated for deployment starting in 2016, FORMOSAT-7 constellation will further provide more than four times the number of the F3/C occultation soundings in near real-time for operation. More detail system information, launch schedule, possible data products, and preliminary observing system simulation experiment results for ionospheric space weather monitoring and forecasting will be presented in this paper.|
|15:15||Flight Results from AeroCube-6||Blake, B et al.||Oral|
| ||Bernard Blake|
| ||The Aerospace Corporation|
| ||AeroCube-6, a pair of 0.5U CubeSats, was launched on 19 June 2014 aboard a Dnepr launch vehicle with a primary mission to demonstrate on orbit a suite of miniaturized radiation dosimeters. After more than six months of operations, AeroCube-6 has collected thousands of orbits of dosimeter data, confirming the reliability of the hardware for extended use in space. These radiation dosimeters probe a range of energy levels that can provide improved insight into radiation-based anomalies and could be used in a distributed architecture to provide wide-scale, short-revisit characterization of the radiation environment in Earth orbit.
This presentation will discuss not only the payload results from AeroCube-6 but also the new processes, infrastructure, and innovations necessary to execute a mission of this kind in the 0.5U form factor. AeroCube-6 was deployed as an auxiliary payload from the UniSat-6 satellite approximately 24 hours after launch, and the AeroCube operations team made contact with the satellites shortly thereafter. Tracking during the early-orbit period was carried out with the satellites’ GPS receivers. Following a smooth checkout phase, the satellites activated their dosimeter payloads and began collecting data. The satellites’ magnetic torque rods provide continuous attitude control; the nominal attitude of each spacecraft is Sun-pointing, but a new control algorithm allows the operations team to effect differential drag between the satellites and control the in-track formation. This formation control permits data collection with adjustable spacing between spacecraft, which allows the dosimeters to probe different timescales of radiation variability. The need for continuous collection and downlink of payload data—while maintaining operations for four other CubeSats—also prompted the AeroCube team to initiate many improvements to the program’s ground segment, including the addition of more ground stations and the establishment of lights-out operations.
|16:30||Carrington-L5: The Next Generation Space Weather Monitoring Mission||Trichas, M et al.||Oral|
| ||Markos Trichas|
| ||Airbus Defence and Space|
| ||Airbus Defence and Space (UK) has carried out a study to investigate the possibilities for an operational space weather mission, in collaboration with the Met Office, RAL Space, MSSL and Imperial College London. The study looked at the user requirements for an operational mission, a model instrument payload, and a mission/spacecraft concept. A particular focus is cost effectiveness and timelineness of the data, suitable for 24/7 operational forecasting needs. We have focussed on a mission at L5 assuming that a mission to L1 will already occur, on the basis that L5 (Earth trailing) offers the greatest benefit for the earliest possible warning on hazardous space weather events (SWE). The baseline payload has been selected to address UK Met Office/NOAA requirements for L5 using instruments with extensive UK/USA heritage, consisting of: heliospheric imager, coronagraph, magnetograph, EUV imager, magnetometer, solar wind analyser and radiation monitor. The platform and subsystems are based on extensive re-use from past Airbus Defence and Space spacecraft to minimize the development cost and a Falcon-9 launcher has been selected on the same basis. A schedule analysis shows that the earliest launch that could be achieved would be 2020, assuming Phase A kick-off in 2015-2016. The study team has selected the name “Carrington” for the mission, reflecting the UK’s proud history in this domain. |
|16:45||Low resource magnetoresistive magnetometers with space weather applications||Eastwood, J et al.||Oral|
| ||Jonathan Eastwood, Patrick Brown, Martin Archer[1,2], Barry Whiteside, Peter Fox, Chris Carr, Tim Horbury|
| || Space and Atmospheric Physics, The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ;  now at School of Physics & Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, London, E1 4NS|
| ||The ESA Space Situational Awareness (SSA) programme Space Weather Element (SWE) segment has identified in its customer requirements document the need to measure the magnetic field in a variety of locations both in the solar wind and the Earth’s magnetosphere: this is essential for understanding spacecraft environments and disturbances to the geomagnetic field. For some applications (e.g hosted payloads), a lower resource payload may be appropriate or necessary, and in this context we discuss recent work at Imperial College developing such a low resource magnetometer based on Magneto-Resistive (MR) technology. We present results from a flight in low Earth orbit on the CINEMA CubeSat and discuss the improved capabilities of the latest instrument design.|
|17:00||ATISE: a micro spectrometer based on the µ-SPOC system to study airglow and aurora||Barthelemy, M et al.||Oral|
| ||Barthelemy Mathieu, Le Coarer Etienne, Basaev Alexander, Kerstel Erik, Vialatte Anne, Lilensten Jean, Thomas Diard, Nicolas Guérineau |
| || IPAG; CSUG, UGA/CNRS, France;  MIET, Zelenograd University, Russia;  Liphy, CSUG, UGA/CNRS, France;  ONERA, Palaiseau, France|
| ||The mission Zegrensat is a nanosatellite which will fly from 2020 on an inclined orbit at an altitude of 650km. It is built through a collaboration between University of Grenoble (UGA) and the MIET in Zelenograd (Russia). The purpose of the main instrument ATISE is to measure the airglow and auroral spectrum during 5 years in order to better constraint the links between energetic inputs and airglow or aurora. The ATISE experiment is a µ spectrometer based on the µSPOC technology allowing an instrument which fits in nanosatellites of the 30 kg class with a 3 kg payload.
The instrument will take limb spectra of the upper atmosphere emission with 6 or 8 lines of sight distributed vertically. It will work between 350 and 900 nm with a moderate spectral resolution. Data interpretation will be made through the Trans* code.|
|17:15||A New Ground-Based Network for Synoptic Solar Observations: The Solar Physics Research Integrated Network Group (SPRING)||Roth, M et al.||Oral|
| ||Markus Roth, Frank Hill, Michael Thompson, Sanjay Gusain[1,2]|
| || Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Freiburg, Germany;  National Solar Observatory, Tucson, USA;  High-Altitude Observatory, Boulder, USA|
| ||SPRING is a project to develop a geographically distributed network of instrumentation to obtain synoptic solar observations. Building on the demonstrated success of networks to provide nearly-continuous long-term data for helioseismology, SPRING will provide data for a wide range of solar research areas. Scientific objectives include internal solar dynamics and structure; wave transport in the solar atmosphere; the evolution of the magnetic field over the activity cycle; irradiance fluctuations; and space weather origins. Anticipated data products include simultaneous full-disk multi-wavelength Doppler and vector magnetic field images; filtergrams in H-Alpha, CaK, and white light; and PSPT-type irradiance support. The data will be obtained with a duty cycle of around 90% and at a cadence no slower than one minute. The current concept is a multi-instrument platform installed in at least six locations, and which will also provide context information for large-aperture solar telescopes such as EST and the DKIST. There is wide support for the idea within the EU and the US solar research communities. The project is in the early planning stages, and we are open to and looking for participants in the science and instrument definition. |
|17:30||AMBRE_NG: A compact dual ion-electron spectrometer for thermal plasma measurements||Lavraud, B et al.||Oral|
| ||B. Lavraud, A. Cara, D. Payan, C. Aoustin, Y. Ballot, A. Cadu, O. Chassela, P. Devoto, A. Fedorov, J. Rouzaud, J.-A. Sauvaud, H.-C. Seran, and C. Rouzies|
| || IRAP/CNRS/Université de Toulouse, France;  Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France;  EREMS, Flourens, France|
| ||The Active Monitor Box of Electrostatic Risks (AMBRE) is a double-head thermal electron and ion electrostatic analyzer (~0 – 30 keV) that will be launched onboard the Jason-3 spacecraft in 2015. The new generation AMBRE instrument (AMBRE_NG) constitutes a significant new evolution that will be based on a single head with newly developed sub-systems to reduce all instrument resources. We will describe the main developments which are being made to reach such a dual ion-electron instrument on the order of 1 kg and 1.5 W. The first purpose of AMBRE_NG is the monitoring of spacecraft charging and of the plasma populations at the origin of this charging. The design is also fully appropriate for the study of space plasma processes in the Earth’s magnetosphere, as well as at other planets where time resolution may not prevail over mass constraints.|
|17:45||Evaluation of space-based observation capabilities in OSCAR in support of gap analysis||Lafeuille, J et al.||Oral|
| ||Jerome Lafeuille|
| ||World Meteorological Organization|
| ||The satellite module of the Observing System Capability Analysis and Review tool (OSCAR) is an on-line resource on satellite programmes, instruments, and the geophysical variables they can observe (http://www.wmo.int/oscar/space). OSCAR is increasingly used (around 1000 visits per day) as a reference for studies, satellite applications, and gap analysis in the area of Earth Observation. An experimental version is being developed, which uses an expert system approach to support the objective evaluation of Earth Observation instrument capabilities. The application of this approach to space weather instruments and variables is being investigated. The presentation will report the latest developments and results in this respect.|
Monday November 23, 15:30 - 16:30, Poster area
|1||GK-2A KSEM Data Simulation by using Pattern Analysis||Yun, A et al.||p-Poster|
| ||Ami Yun, Eunmi Hwang, Jaewoo Park, Jaejin Lee|
| || WeSPACE;  Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute|
| ||KSEM(Korean Space Environment Monitor) of GK-2A(Geostationary Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-2A) which will be launched in 2018 would leave its footstep in the Korean astronomical history as the first attempt to provide space weather forecast service in geostationary orbit. KSEM consists of Particle Detectors with 16 channels, Fluxgate Magnetometers and Charging Monitor to observe charging state of the geostationary satellite. As it is necessary to develop space weather data processing algorithm in ground station, it is ordinary to use simulated data before the launching event of satellite. Although it is also available to apply precedent data from other satellite for the verification, as the observation type of the data are not match with KSEM and became difficult to utilize them directly, the development of the simulating software was inevitable. The data from KSEM of GK-2A and the other satellite were used to create simulation data and it is used to be analysed and defined the data from the three sensors of particle detector, magnetometer and satellite charging monitor which are loaded on the KSEM. Through the strict analysis of the precedent satellite data, it was able to verify the patterns from the three sensors and also was successful to build the algorithm. The observation data from particle detectors has shown three patterns roughly, while magnetometer has shown the sine curves and, finally, charging monitor has shown the completely random curves . On the top of these basic patterns, for expression of space weather event, instrument error and white noise, the random noise level was appropriately assumed to create a data similar to the actual data. It would be likely to contribute to the production of data which have various patterns.|
|2||Kazakhstan ground-based experimental complex for Space Weather study||Kryakunova, O et al.||p-Poster|
| ||O.Kryakunova, N.Nikolayevskiy, B.Zhumabayev, A.Andreyev, A.Malimbayev, Yu. Levin, N.Salihov, O.Sokolova, I.Tsepakina, A.Yakovets|
| ||Institute of Ionosphere, Republic of Kazakhstan|
| ||Kazakhstan ground-base complex for space weather study is situated near Almaty. There are standard Neutron Monitor for registration of cosmic ray intensity and gamma-ray emission instrument at the altitude of 3340 m above sea level. Almaty cosmic ray station is included in the European Database NMDB (www.nmdb.eu). Geomagnetic Observatory "Alma-Ata" was certified as an international organization of INTERMAGNET (www.intermagnet.bgs.ac.uk). Nowadays the measurements of the solar radio flux at frequencies of 1.078 GHz and 2.8 GHz (10.7 cm) is carried out on the regular basis with 1-second time resolution. The digital ionosonde PARUS provides accuracy of 2.5 km for h’(f) and 0.05 MHz for the foF2(t). The SATI instrument developed in Canada (http://stpl.cress.yorcu.ca/SATI) and installed at the experimental base area of the Institute of Ionosphere “Orbita” at 2730 m altitude above sea level in the absolute absence of the Almaty city light has been in regular operation since October 2009. A Callisto radio spectrometer (eC37) was installed at the “Orbita” base area in May 2011. It operates between 45 and 870 MHz (different types of solar radio bursts) having a frequency resolution of 62.5 KHz. All data are represented on the web site of the Institute of the Ionosphere (www.ionos.kz) in real time. There is common database with 1-hour data in real time.|
|3||Observations of Space Environment Data Acquisition Monitor (SEDA) onboard Himawari-8||Tsutomu, N et al.||p-Poster|
| ||Nagatsuma Tsutomu, Kaori Sakaguchi, Mamoru Ishii, and Yuki Kubo|
| ||National Institute of Information and Communications Technology|
| || New Japanese meteorological satellite, Himawari-8, was successfully launched on October 7, 2014. Space environment data acquisition monitor (SEDA) is on board Himawari-8, as one of the housekeeping information for satellite operation. SEDA consists two sensors. One is proton sensor, which has 8 separate diode detectors. The energy range of the proton detectors are from 20 MeV to 100 MeV.
The other is electron sensor, which measures internal charging currents caused by energetic electrons. There are eight sensor plates arranged in a stack and each plate responds to a different energy range. As a result, energetic electrons whose energy range between 0.2 to 4.5 MeV can be measured by the electron sensors. The time resolution of each sensors is 10 sec. The field of view of SEDA is eastward. Thus, the specification of SEDA is suitable for monitoring the energetic electrons and protons above Japanese meridian of Geostationary orbit.
Himawari-8/SEDA has been operating since November 3, 2014. Based on the agreement between Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and NICT, JMA is providing Himawari/SEDA data in near-real time since January 21. 2015. Results of initial observations by Himawari-8/SEDA will be introduced in our presentation.|
|4||A solar UV radiometer for planetary space missions||Cessateur, G et al.||e-Poster|
| ||Gaël Cessateur, Jean Lilensten, Thierry Dudok de Wit, Mathieu Barthelemy, Matthieu Kretzschmar|
| || Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, BIRA-IASB, Brussels, Belgium;  Institut de Planétologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble, Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, France;  LPC2E/CNRS, Universite d'Orleans, Orléans, France|
| ||The solar UV flux is then main energy source for planetary and cometary upper atmospheres, and is also of primary importance for modelling the correct photo rate coefficients regarding numerous atomic and molecular species. Most of the photochemical models rely on solar proxies, or on solar UV reference spectra, for accounting the solar variability. Through several examples including the studies of Jovian icy moons, we have shown that there is no better alternative to direct observations of the solar UV flux, while looking at space weather phenomena. Future planetary atmospheric missions should be able to perform in-situ observations of the solar UV flux.
We propose here an instrument, based on a radiometer design, capable of delivering the full UV spectrum from 1 nm to 250 nm. The remarkable coherency of the solar spectral variability allows us to use the combination of five spectral bands only, which is enough for reconstructing the solar UV spectrum with a relative error of about 20%. This new generation of radiometer will greatly benefit from the GOES/EUV, PROBA2/LYRA, PICARD/PREMOS and MAVEN/EUV experiments. Key issues are still to be overcome, namely degradation issues and a better accuracy on the absolute values of the irradiance. This instrumental design is also optimized for low mass and low power consumption, and then could be interesting as payload for nano-satellites.|
|5||ESIO, a new instrument for operational space weather||Thibert, T et al.||p-Poster|
| ||Tanguy Thibert, Bogdan Nicula, Jean-Marie Gillis, Etienne Renotte, Piers Jiggens, Alain Hilgers|
| || Liege Space Centre (CSL);  Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB);  European Space Agency (ESA)|
| ||ESIO is a new instrument for operational space weather, as part of the ESA Space Situational Awareness Programme. This is a solar EUV imager and radiometer, developed under ESA General Support Technology Programme jointly by the Centre Spatial de Liège and the Royal Observatory of Belgium.
ESIO benefits from scientific missions heritage (SOHO/EIT, Proba2-SWAP, Solar Orbiter/EUI) from both a technical and an operational standpoint. Its requirements are however very different from a scientific mission. They are driven by the need to identify observational features in the data, in-flight, and transmit them in near real-time for warning and alert. Another aspect is the reduction of instrument resources (mass, size, power, downlink data rate) for easier accommodation as secondary payload. These requirements implied the development of new electronics and algorithms for autonomous operation in flight, between downlink passes.
After a presentation of the general design of the instrument, we will focus on these developments, i.e. electronics and algorithms, which have been breadboarded and tested during this year 2015. The ESIO electronic design will be commented, together with the results of the functional test campaign. An introduction to the data processing and feature detection capabilities of such an instrument will be included, with a discussion regarding the on-board computing power requirements.
|6||Calibration of Radiation Monitors||Provatas, G et al.||p-Poster|
| ||G. Provatas[1,2], M. Axiotis, I. Sandberg[1,3], I. A. Daglis[3,1] , V. Foteinou, S. Harissopulos and P. Jiggens|
| || Institute of Accelerating Systems and Applications, Athens, Greece;  Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics, NCSR “Demokritos”, Athens, Greece;  Department of Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece;  European Research and Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands|
| ||Spacecrafts are exposed to several distinct radiation sources over their lifetime. The European Space Agency (ESA) systematically measures geo-space particle radiation with a number of radiation monitors on-board ESA missions. These measurements are valuable for the characterization of the particle radiation levels in the geo-space environment, resulting from solar eruptive events, radiation belt particles and galactic cosmic rays. In order to evaluate the measurements and derive reliable proton and electron fluxes, the determination of reliable response functions through experimental and numerical calibrations is needed.
In this work, we present recent efforts for the determination of the response functions of the Radiation Environment Monitor (REM) on-board the STRV1c spacecraft, and the Radiation Monitor on-board the X-ray Multi Mirror (XMM) mission. Moreover, preliminary work on the Environmental Monitor Unit (EMU) unit on-board Galileo/GIOVE-B is also performed. The numerical calibrations are based on detailed Monte Carlo simulations by means of the GRAS/Geant4 software package.
Our results are compared to available experimental data and previous simulations.
Acknowledgements: This work is performed in the framework of the Hellenic Evolution of Radiation data processing and Modeling of the Environment in Space (HERMES) project, implemented by IASA under ESA contract no. 4000112863/14/NL/HB.
|7||The Infrastructure of the Mexican Space Weather Service (SCiESMEX).||De la luz, V et al.||p-Poster|
| ||Victor De la Luz, Americo Gonzalez-Esparza, Pedro Corona-Romero, Julio Mejia, Xavier Gonzalez |
| ||SCiESMEX, Instituto de Geofisica, Unidad Michoacan, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico. CP 58190.|
| ||We introduce our technological and human infrastructure evolved in the new Mexican Space Weather Service (SCiESMEX), located in the Geophysics Institute seat Morelia of the National University of Mexico (UNAM). We started operation the October 1st, 2014 becoming the first space weather service worldwide in Spanish language. The space weather instrumentation associated to SCiESMEX includes: the Mexican Array Telescope (MEXART), a Callisto radio telescope, a set of Schumann antennas, magnetometers, cosmic ray observatory, h-alpha telescope,
and the GPS mexican network (Tlaloc). The laboratory of High Performance Computing started with a data center with a Storage Server and a SuperBlade computer. There are 4 scientist working full time in the project, 8 associated scientist, and 3 technicians.|
|8||Coronal and heliospheric imaging instrumentation development at RAL Space||Davies, J et al.||p-Poster|
| ||Jackie Davies, Chris Eyles, Doug Griffin, Richard Harrison, Kevin Middleton, Tony Richards, Kevin Rogers, James Tappin, IanTosh, Nick Waltham|
| ||RAL Space, UK|
| ||RAL Space is enhancing its development programme for visible-light coronal and heliospheric imaging instrumentation in response to opportunities such as the European Space Agency’s Space Situational Awareness programme and S2 small-mission call. This draws on heritage from scientific instruments such as LASCO (Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph) on the SOHO spacecraft, SMEI (Solar Mass Ejection Imager) on the Coriolis spacecraft and the HI (Heliospheric Imager) instruments on STEREO. Such visible-light coronal and heliospheric imaging of solar wind phenomena, such as coronal mass ejections and interaction regions, is of critical importance to space weather, both operationally and in terms of enabling the underpinning research to be performed. We discuss the determination of instrument requirements, key design trade-offs and the evolution of base-line designs for the coronal and heliospheric regimes, focussing in particular on such aspects as the exploitation of polarimetry and the analytical determination of baffle geometry. |
|9||EISCAT_3D: Status of the next generation incoherent scatter radar system||Tjulin, A et al.||e-Poster|
| ||Anders Tjulin, Ingrid Mann, Craig Heinselman, Carl-Fredrik Enell, Ingemar Häggström|
| ||EISCAT Scientific Association|
| ||EISCAT_3D: Status of the next generation incoherent scatter radar system
When implemented, the EISCAT_3D radar system will be a world-leading international research infrastructure. It will be located in the Fenno-Scandinavian Arctic and will apply the incoherent scatter radar technique to study geospace and to investigate how the Earth's atmosphere is coupled to space. The EISCAT_3D system will consist of five phased array antenna sites that will utilise modern signal processing and radar techniques to obtain observations of the ionosphere with significantly better resolution and sensitivity than what is possible with present radar systems. EISCAT_3D will be operated by EISCAT Scientific Association and thus be an integral part of an organisation that has successfully been running incoherent scatter radars for more than thirty years.
The status of the implementation of EISCAT_3D is presented.|
|10||Nanosatellites for in-situ studies of the Earth’s ionosphere and thermosphere – exploiting the QB50 mission opportunity for Space Weather science||Kataria, D et al.||e-Poster|
| ||Dhiren Kataria, Anasuya Aruliah, Alan Smith, Robert Wicks, Rahil Chaudery, Andrew Malpuss, Gethyn Lewis|
| || Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, United Kingdom;  Atmospheric Physics Laboratory, University College London, London, United Kingdom|
| ||With the rapid development of miniaturised platform and payload technologies, nano-satellites, in particular in the CubeSat form factor, provide an attractive low cost platform for in-situ monitoring of the Earth’s upper atmosphere. Funded under the space call of the European Union’s 7th Framework Programme, the QB50 mission will launch up to 50 CubeSats to an altitude of ~ 380 km and the satellites will then be allowed to undergo a decaying orbit until they burn up at around 90km. Sensors have been chosen to make in-situ measurements of plasma and neutral atmosphere parameters in this altitude region where few measurements have been made before. This paper will present a brief overview of the QB50 mission and the sensors that are being developed and discuss the opportunity that the mission presents for space weather science.
The paper will also present details of the Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS), one of the sensors being developed for the mission at the Mullard Space Science Laboratory. The sensor is designed for sampling of low mass ionised and neutral particles in the spacecraft ram direction with the instrument resolutions optimised for resolving the major constituents in the lower thermosphere. Performance characteristics of the INMS, both from simulations and from preliminary results of laboratory characterisation tests, will be presented. A prototype-flight model of the sensor has been launched on a precursor flight and is currently undergoing commissioning. The status of the flight instrument will be discussed.
|11||LYRA experiences for future space weather instruments||Dammasch, I et al.||p-Poster|
| ||Ingolf Dammasch, Marie Dominique |
| ||Royal Observatory of Belgium|
| ||After almost six years in space, the LYRA radiometer on PROBA2 has not only collected many data on solar activity in various spectral regions; the different forms of signal degradation observed in these band passes can also be a guideline for future instrument developments. |
|12||ILWS/COSPAR Space Weather Roadmap: Geospace Constellation Mission Concept Addressing the Causes of Intense GICs||Opgenoorth, H et al.||p-Poster|
| ||Ian Mann, Hermann J. Opgenorth, Kirsti Kauristie, Terrence Onsager, Karel Schrijver|
| || Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Canada;  Swedish Institute of Space Physics, 75121 Uppsala, Sweden;  Finnish Meteorological Institute, FI-00560, Helsinki, Finland;  NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center, Boulder CO 80305, USA;  Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA|
| ||The ILWS/COSPAR Roadmap Team Report “Understanding space weather to shield society: A global road map for 2015–2025 commissioned by COSPAR and ILWS” highlights the need for space science research in order to meet the challenges of space weather. The highest priority addressed by the roadmap relates to understanding the dynamics and causes of geomagnetically induced currents (GICs), with the roadmap team identifying a mission concept comprising two multi-spacecraft constellation missions to address the causes of intense GICs. The proposed science targets focus on when, where and at what magnitude the energy stored in the nightside magnetotail drives current into the ionosphere to generate large GICs. The Roadmap team highlighted an implementation concept targeting the flight of two multi-satellite constellation missions: the first a Tail Transition Region Explorer at the inner edge of the plasmasheet, and the second an Energy Partition and Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Atmosphere Coupling Explorer in the auroral acceleration region. Here we examine possible high level implementation paths for each mission targeting the science objectives: (i) Understand the physical processes, ideally to the point of predictability, that result in the diversion of energy and electrical currents from the magnetotail into the ionosphere and drive large GICs; and (ii) Understand the processes which control the driving of, and energy partition between, electrical currents and energetic particle inputs into the ionosphere and atmosphere. The first mission concepts aligns strongly with the NASA Dynamic Geospace Coupling (DGC) mission recommended as a New Science Target for the LWS Program (LWS Mission #8) and described in the 2009 NASA Heliophysics Roadmap “THE SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS OF A NEW ERA; Recommended Roadmap for Science and Technology 2009–2030”, the DGC mission having the goal to “To understand how magnetospheric dynamics provides energy into the coupled ionosphere-magnetosphere system” and targeting the priority investigation: “How do the magnetosphere and the ionosphere systems interact with each other?” The second constellation concept is also strongly aligned with international space agency concepts, for example the Alfven Plus mission concept currently under review by ESA as the 4th M-class mission in the ESA Cosmic Visions program. Overall such an implementation is consistent with the US NRC 2013-2022 Decadal Survey “Solar and Space Physics: A Science for a Technological Survey”, which prioritised a science target “to determine how the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system is coupled and how it responds to solar and magnetospheric forcing”, and which NRC illustrated by a “Magnetosphere Energetics, Dynamics, and Ionospheric Coupling Investigation” reference mission. The concept is also well-aligned with the recent draft of the US Science and Technology Policy Office (OSTP) 2015 “National Space Weather Strategy”, as well as the space science and space weather foci of many international space agencies. A coordinated international implementation would improve not only future GIC forecast capability, but also the understanding of worst case as well more continuous space weather GIC impacts.|
|13||Space weather science with SLP on board PICASSO||Ranvier, S et al.||p-Poster|
| ||Sylvain Ranvier, Johan De Keyser, Pepijn Cardoen, Michel Anciaux, Emmanuel Gamby, Didier Pieroux, Didier Fussen, Marius Echim, Hervé Lamy, Herbert Gunell|
| ||Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Belgium|
| ||A Langmuir probe instrument, which will fly on board the Pico-Satellite for Atmospheric and Space Science Observations (PICASSO), is under development at the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy. PICASSO is an ESA in-orbit demonstrator.
The sweeping Langmuir probe (SLP) instrument is designed to measure both plasma density and electron temperature at an altitude varying from about 400 km up to 700 km from a high inclination orbit. Therefore, the plasma density is expected to fluctuate over a wide range, from about 1e8/m³ at high latitude and high altitude up to 1e12/m³ at low/mid latitude and low altitude. The electron temperature is expected to lie between approximately 1000 K and 10 000 K.
Given the high inclination of the orbit, the SLP instrument will allow a global monitoring of the ionosphere with a maximum spatial resolution of the order of 150 m. The main goals are to study 1) the ionosphere-plasmasphere coupling, 2) the subauroral ionosphere and corresponding magnetospheric features, 3) auroral structures, 4) polar caps, and 5) ionospheric dynamics via coordinated observations with EISCAT’s heating radar.
To achieve the scientific objectives described above, the instrument includes four thin cylindrical probes whose electrical potential is swept in such a way that both plasma density and electron temperature can be derived. In addition, since at least two probes will be out of the spacecraft’s wake at any given time, differential measurements can be performed to increase the accuracy.
Along the orbit, the Debye length is expected to vary from a few millimetres up to a few meters. Due to the tight constraints in terms of mass and volume inherent to pico-satellites, the use of long booms, which would guarantee that the probes are outside the sheath of the spacecraft (several Debye lengths away), is not possible. Consequently, the probes might be in the sheath of the spacecraft in polar regions. Extensive modelling and simulations of the sheath effects on the measured current/voltage characteristics will be performed to ensure an accurate parameter extraction from the measured data. Another issue implied by the use of a pico-satellite platform for a Langmuir probe instrument is the limited conducting area of the spacecraft which can lead to spacecraft charging. In order to avoid this problem, a specific spacecraft potential control mechanism is implemented. The resulting measurement data rate is compatible with the limited telemetry bandwidth available on PICASSO, which will have an S-band downlink session when it passes over the ground station every few orbits.|
|14||Development of a new versatile magnetometer for solar monitoring onboard of the GEO-KOMPSAT-2A satellite||Kraft, S et al.||p-Poster|
| ||Stefan Kraft, Alain Hilgers, Juha-Pekka Luntama, Christian Strauch, Olaf Hillenmaier, Uli Auster, Magda Delva, Aris Valavanoglou, Werner Magnes, Patrick Brown Jongho Seon|
| || European Space Agency;  MAGSON GmbH Berlin;  IWF Graz;  IGeP Braunschweig;  Imperial College London;  Kyung Hee University Korea|
| ||Measuring the interaction of the Earth's magnetic field with the Sun is an essential task for the monitoring and forecast of space weather events, and therefore an important building block of ESA’s space weather system. The magnetic field varies between up to ~60 micro Tesla on Earth down to several Nano Tesla at larger distances from Earth. The magnetic field of the Sun, the Earth and the solar wind interactions lead to variations of the field, which can be relatively faint. Versatile magnetometers therefore need to be able to measure magnetic field vectors with high sensitivity and low noise levels for the indicated field magnitudes to match the requirements of different mission profiles. In order to enable the hosting of magnetometers on upcoming mostly lately identified space missions opportunities facing different locations or orbits, such magnetometers must be able to measure and compensate the spacecraft magnetic field contributions. This allows to keep the length of the boom reasonably short, and to minimise the efforts on the spacecraft characterisation and thereby the impact on the development schedule.
For a potentially more frequent use of magnetometers for solar monitoring purposes, ESA has initiated the development of a new versatile measurement concept and its demonstration by the construction of an engineering model. This promising concept and the instrument design have then been realised and tested, and the resulting instrument is now under further development for its use on a first mission opportunity. The magnetometer will be developed and provided by ESA to become part of the Korean Space Environmental Monitoring System under responsibility of the Kyung Hee Unversity and to be integrated on the GEO-KOMPSAT-2A satellite currently developed by the Korean Aerospace Research Institute. We will report on the previous test and qualification results, the current status of the flight model development and the expected upcoming activities.
|15||SUITS/SWUSV: A Solar-Terrestrial Space Weather & Climate Investigation||Damé, L et al.||p-Poster|
| ||Luc Damé, Alain Hauchecorne and the SUITS Team|
| || Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales (LATMOS), IPSL/CNRS/UVSQ|
| ||We present the SUITS/SWUSV microsatellite mission investigation: "Solar Ultraviolet Influence on Troposphere/Stratosphere, a Space Weather & Ultraviolet Solar Variability" mission. SUITS/SWUSV was developed to determine the origins of the Sun’s activity, understand the flaring process (high energy flare characterization) and onset of CMEs (forecasting). Another major objective is to determine the dynamics and coupling of Earth’s atmosphere and its response to solar variability (in particular UV) and terrestrial inputs. It therefore includes the prediction and detection of major eruptions and coronal mass ejections (Lyman-Alpha and Herzberg continuum imaging) the solar forcing on the climate through radiation and their interactions with the local stratosphere (UV spectral irradiance measures from 170 to 400 nm). The mission is on a sun-synchronous polar orbit 18h-6h (for almost constant observing) and proposes a 7 instruments model payload of 65 kg - 65 W with: SUAVE (Solar Ultraviolet Advanced Variability Experiment), an optimized telescope for FUV (Lyman-Alpha) and MUV (200–220 nm Herzberg continuum) imaging (sources of variability); SOLSIM (Solar Spectral Irradiance Monitor), a spectrometer with 0.65 nm spectral resolution from 170 to 340 nm; SUPR (Solar Ultraviolet Passband Radiometers), with UV filter radiometers at Lyman-Alpha, Herzberg, MgII index, CN bandhead and UV bands coverage up to 400 nm; HEBS (High Energy Burst Spectrometers), a large energy coverage (a few tens of keV to a few hundreds of MeV) instrument to characterize large flares; EPT-HET (Electron-Proton Telescope – High Energy Telescope), measuring electrons, protons, and heavy ions over a large energy range; ERBO (Earth Radiative Budget and Ozone) NADIR oriented; and a vector magnetometer. Complete accommodation of the payload has been performed on a PROBA type platform very nicely. Heritage is important both for instruments (SODSIM and PREMOS on PICARD, LYRA on PROBA-2, SOLSPEC on ISS, …) and platform (PROBA-2, PROBA-V, ...), leading to high TRL levels (>7). SUITS/SWUSV was designed in view of the ESA/CAS AO for a Small Mission; it is now envisaged for a joint opportunity CNES/NASA with Europeans and Americans partners for a possible flight in 2021. |
|16||A capable high performance plasma analyser for space weather applications||Kataria, D et al.||p-Poster|
| ||Dhiren Kataria, Gethyn Lewis, Hubert Hu, Richard Cole, Mark Hailey|
| ||Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Department of Space and Climate Physics, University College London|
| ||The Mullard Space Science Laboratory (MSSL) has strong heritage with plasma instrumentation delivering capable instruments for a range of missions including for magnetospheric missions (Cluster, Double Star), planetary environments (Cassini) and cometary studies (Giotto). These activities are backed up with a strong instrument development programme and state-of-the-art test and calibration facilities. A particular focus of the current development activities is instrument miniaturisation using novel instrument geometries and micro-fabrication techniques typical of MEMS-based systems. A number of analyser geometries and fabrication techniques are under study and proof-of-concept/prototype analysers based on the novel geometries have been fabricated.
Following on from these activities, the ChaPS instrument was built and launched on the UK’s TechDemoSat mission. The ability to tune the performance of the analyser to meet specific scientific requirements is a key feature of the miniaturised analysers under development. This is demonstrated on ChaPS where the instrument consists of a number of miniaturised sensors optimised to carry out electrostatic analysis of the different space plasma populations in a low earth polar orbit, performing simultaneous electron-ion detection. The instrument and the subsystems being demonstrated on ChaPS are attractive for a number of space applications, providing both an enabling technology for future space science missions as well as opening up new applications that were not feasible with such instrumentation in the past.
This paper will present a brief overview of past instruments developed at MSSL and discuss some of the instruments currently under development for flight. The paper will also present details of the ChaPS instrument, present ground calibration results and discuss early results from flight.
|17||Instrument concepts to help determine the incoming CME field from solar observations to enable 24h forecasts of space weather||Schrijver, C et al.||p-Poster|
| ||C.J. Schrijver and J. Linker|
| || Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Palo Alto, CA;  Predictive Science Inc., San Diego, CA|
| ||The intensity of CME-related space weather is a function of the structure of the magnetic field impacting the terrestrial environment. Practically speaking, forecasts of the incoming field configuration beyond 0.5-1 hour require that the field be modeled from the eruption site through the heliosphere. But determining the erupting field, and how it evolves into the inner heliosphere is hampered by the fact that we cannot reliably model the coronal magnetic field involved based on only surface-field measurements of the visible hemisphere of the Sun. Following the priorities set by the recent COSPAR/ILWS roadmap (ASR vol. 55, p. 2745) we present two complementary rationales and concepts for instrumentation designed to enable real-world magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modeling CMEs in the heliosphere. One involves the demonstration that stereoscopic EUV imaging of the solar corona from a perspective some 5-10 degrees off the Sun-Earth line to complement Earth-perspective observations can be used to efficiently and successfully constrain the 3D loop trajectories of active regions, which can then be combined with surface (vector-)magnetograms before and after eruptions to constrain what magnetic configuration was ejected. The other concept involves magnetography well off the Sun-Earth line (perhaps from an L5 perspective) to increase the coverage of the solar surface sufficiently to improve global coronal field models, through which eruptions can be propagated before they are handed off to heliospheric MHD models.|
|18||Space Weather monitoring from Geostationary orbit : KMA launch GK2A space weather mission, KSEM||Lee, H et al.||p-Poster|
| ||Hyesook Lee, Won-Hyeong Ri, Dohyeong Kim, Cheolun Heo, Jae-Gwang |
| ||Korea Meteorological Administration|
| ||Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) in coordination with KARI and Kyung Hee University is developing the Korean first space weather mission, KSEM (Korean Space Environment Monitor) for Geo-KOMPSAT-2A (GK2A), which is scheduled to inherit COMS meteorological mission 2018. GK2A will carry on the Meteorological Imager as primary mission and the space weather instrument as the secondary mission.
KSEM is designed to monitor the space weather environment for 24 hours/7 days during 10 years of GK2A mission life time. The suite of KSEM instruments consists of 1) medium energy Particle Detector (PD); Magnetometer (MG); and satellite charging monitor (SCM). PD inherited the design from THEMIS SST. ESA SOSMAG (Service Oriented Spacecraft Magnetometer) will be hosted to monitor the Earth’s magnetic field, as part of the space weather instrument package on-board GK2A. SCM will measure the satellite internal charging.
The ground segment associated with KSEM is under development. KSEM ground segment includes the system of the data receiving, processing, disseminating and the extracting the 2nd level of space weather information of the 3D particle distribution around the geostationary orbit, the satellite orbit targeted particle flux, and Kp, Dst.
Here we summarize the development status and future plan including the data dissemination schedule.