## Session 12 - Space Weather Instrumentation

Jackie Davies (RAL UKRI STFC); Keith Ryden (Univ. of Surrey)
Thursday 21/11, 11:15-12:30 & 17:15-18:30
Friday 22/11, 11:15-12:30
Elisabeth

Space weather research, forecasting and operations rely on measurements and observations generated by specialized sensors and instrumentation. The purpose of this session is to provide a forum dedicated to Space Weather Instrumentation questions and concepts.

Topics to be covered include:
• Emerging requirements for Space Weather Instrumentation, data and resources;
• Ground-based Space Weather Instruments and networks (including magnetometers, VLF receivers, riometers, ionosondes and neutron monitors);
• Balloon and aircraft-based Space Weather Instruments;
• Space-based in-situ sensors measuring cause (particles and fields) and effect (internal / surface charging, solar cell degradation etc);
• Space-based remote-sensing instruments (EUV imagers, coronagraphs, etc); All contributions related to these topics are welcome.

Talks
Thursday November 21, 11:15 - 12:30, Elisabeth
Thursday November 21, 17:15 - 18:30, Elisabeth
Friday November 22, 11:15 - 12:30, Elisabeth

### Talks : Time schedule

Thursday November 21, 11:15 - 12:30, Elisabeth
 11:15 Tor Vergata Synoptic Solar Telescope: Optical Design and Preliminary Spectral Characterization Calchetti, D et al. Oral Daniele Calchetti[1], Giorgio Viavattene[1], Francesco Berrilli[1], Dario Del Moro[1], Luca Giovannelli[1], Stuart Jefferies[2], Neil Murphy[3], Maurizio Oliviero[4] [1]University of Rome Tor Vergata, [2]Georgia State University, [3]NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, [4]INAF Observatory of Capodimonte Synoptic telescopes are fundamental tools in solar physics and space weather. Their typical high cadence full-disk observations are pivotal to asses the physical conditions on the Sun and to forecast the evolution in time of those conditions. \\% The TSST (\textit{Tor vergata Synoptic Solar Telescope}) is a new synoptic telescope composed of two main full-disk instruments: an H$\alpha$ Daystar SR-127 0.4\r{A} telescope and a Magneto Optical Filter (MOF)-based telescope in the Potassium (KI D1) absorption line at 770nm. This MOF consists in a glass cell containing a potassium vapor where a longitudinal magnetic field is applied. This project started in 2011 in collaboration with the research groups involved in the MOTH (\textit{Magneto Optical filters at Two Height}) experiment (IfA-University of Hawaii, Georgia State University and JPL) and in the VAMOS (\textit{Velocity And Magnetic Observations of the Sun}) experiment (INAF Observatory of Capodimonte). H$\alpha$ observations are fundamental for the real-time detection of flaring regions since the H$\alpha$ intensity noticeably increases during the impulsive and flash phases of the flare event. On the other hand, the MOF-based telescope will be able to produce LOS magnetograms and dopplergrams of the solar photosphere at $\sim$300km above the solar surface. Magnetograms are essential for the study of the magnetic field's geometry in active regions, while the dopplergrams can be used to study the dynamics of the solar lower atmosphere.\\% In this work, we present the optical design of the MOF-based instrument. This is a refractor telescope with a 80mm aperture and an effective focal length of $\sim$1m. It will acquire four consecutive full-disk solar maps every 15s. We also present details on the preliminary spectral characterization of this instrument which is a mandatory step to obtain calibrated magnetograms and dopplergrams. 11:30 Ionospheric radio occultation using Spire’s cubesat constellation Angling, M et al. Oral Vu Nguyen[1], T. Duly[1], V. Irisov[1], O. Nogues-Correig[2], L. Tan[3], T. Yuasa[3], G. Savastano[4], D. Masters[1], M. J. Angling[2], F-X Bocquet[2], G. Olivares-Pulido[2], K. Nordstrom[2] (1) Spire Global, Inc., Boulder, USA; (2) Spire Global UK Ltd., Glasgow, UK; (3) Spire Global Singapore PTE Ltd., Singapore; (4) Spire Global Luxembourg S.a.r.l., Luxembourg Spire Global is a leading player in the nanosatellite sector, and the first to provide commercial, low-cost GNSS radio occultation measurements to support critical weather data for numerical weather prediction. Spire has ambitious goals of collecting over 100,000 radio occultation profiles per day, providing robust coverage of atmospheric measurements over the entire planet. Each Spire satellite is equipped with a software defined radio (SDR) receiver (STRATOS) designed to collect GNSS signals for science and precise orbit determination, and over 70 satellites have been launched into a continuously growing constellation of CubeSats. As the GNSS signal passes through the atmosphere to the receiver, it is refracted by an amount dependent on the atmospheric characteristics along its path. This technique, referred to as radio occultation (RO), can be used to estimate atmospheric properties such as refractivity and temperature with high precision, accuracy and vertical resolution. Furthermore, the GNSS signals from Spire’s constellation also carry information about the ionosphere. Similar to atmospheric soundings, the large quantity of spatially diverse and low-latency ionospheric soundings are the first of their kind to be collected by cubesats and are becoming increasingly valuable for the improvement of space weather forecasting capabilities. In this talk we will highlight Spire’s GNSS-based ionospheric observation capabilities by providing an overview of the types of measurements produced, including total electron content (TEC), scintillation and electron density, and reviewing recent results describing the current coverage and quality of the constellation data. Additionally, we will discuss the precise orbit determination of Spire satellites based on GNSS processing and how these observations are potentially useful for estimating thermospheric density to improve orbit drag and space situational awareness models. 11:45 Coordinated Ionospheric Reconstruction CubeSat Experiment (CIRCE) Mission Overview Attrill, G et al. Oral G. D. R. Attrill[1], A. C. Nicholas[2], G. Routledge[1], J. A. Miah[1], K. F. Dymond[2], S. A. Budzien[2], A. W. Stephan[2], and B. Fritz[2] [1] Defence Science & Technology Laboratory, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire, SP4 0JQ, U.K. [2] Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, U.S.A. The Coordinated Ionospheric Reconstruction Cubesat Experiment (CIRCE) is a joint UK/US effort to fly a two-satellite mission consisting of two 6U CubeSats actively maintaining a lead-follow configuration in the same low Earth orbit with a launch planned for the 2020 timeframe. These nanosatellites will each feature multiple space weather payloads. From the UK, the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) will provide the In-situ & Remote Ionospheric Sensing (IRIS) suite consisting of an ion/neutral mass spectrometer, a dual frequency GNSS receiver for ionospheric sensing, and a radiation environment monitor. From the US, the Naval Research Laboratory will provide two 1U Tiny Ionospheric Photometers (TIPs) on each satellite, observing the ultraviolet 135.6 nm emission of atomic oxygen at night-time. The primary objective is to characterize the two-dimensional distribution of electrons. The methodology used to reconstruct the night-time ionosphere employs continuous UV photometry from four distinct viewing angles in combination with an additional data source, such as in situ plasma density measurements, with advanced image space reconstruction algorithm tomography techniques. We present our mission concept. Acknowledgement: This work was sponsored by the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory’s Space Programme, and the Office of Naval Research through 6.1 base funding. 12:00 Future of the worldwide network of neutron monitors? Steigies, C et al. Oral Christian T. Steigies[1], Rolf Bütikofer[2], Danislav Sapundjiev[3], Karl-Ludwig Klein[4], Olga Kryakunova[5], the NMDB consortium [1] Universität Kiel, Germany, [2] Universität Bern, Switzerland, [3] Royal Meteorological Institute, Belgium, [4] Observatoire de Paris, France, [5] Institute of Ionosphere, Kazakhstan Routinely measurements of cosmic ray intensity at ground-level were started during the International Geophysical Year (IGY) 1957-1958 by the development of a worldwide network of standard neutron monitors. These so-called IGY neutron monitors were invented by John A. Simpson in the late 1940’s. In the 1960’s Carmichael designed the NM64 neutron monitor with a larger counting rate to improve the counting statistics. Many stations later upgraded their detectors to this NM64 type. In the early days of neutron monitors the data were shared by printed books and later with magnetic tapes, floppy disks and CDs. With the advent of the internet the neutron monitor hourly data were provided by world data centers with a time lag of typical one month. Only in 2008/2009 the EU FP7 funded the Neutron Monitor database (NMDB) which makes available 1-minute neutron monitor data in real-time as well as different neutron monitor data products for the public. Several space weather services routinely rely on the availability of the neutron monitor data from the worldwide network, and NMDB is continuing to provide real-time data even ten years after the official end of the project. Beside the lack of NMDB funding, also the funding for many of the data providers is missing. Many of the current operators of the stations will retire in the coming years, therefore young scientists, engineers, technicians, that will continue to operate and upgrade the neutron monitor stations in the future must be recruited by supplying interesting positions. This means that investments by the international community into the future of the neutron monitor network must be made now to guarantee the continuation of ground based quality neutron monitor measurements also in the future. 12:15 A new Antarctic Space Weather Laboratory containing a LAGO Cosmic Rays Detector Dasso, S et al. Oral S. Dasso[1,2,3], N. Santos[2], A.M. Gulisano[3,4], O. Areso[1], M. Pereira[1], M. Ramelli[1], U. Hereñú[1], V.E. López[5], V. Lanabere[2], H. Asorey[6], H. Ochoa[4], A. Niemela[2], for the LAGO collaboration [7]. [1] IAFE/UBA CONICET,Argentina. [2] UBA FCEyN, Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmósfera y los Océanos (DCAO), Argentina. [3] UBA FCEyN, Departamento de Física (DF), Argentina. [4] Instituto Antártico Argentino/ DNA, Argentina. [5] Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (SMN), Argentina. [6] Centro Atómico Bariloche (CNEA/CONICET/IB, Instituto de Tecnologías en Detección y Astropartículas (CNEA, CONICET,UNSAM), Argentina. [7] http://lagoproject.net We will present the Antarctic Space Weather Laboratory of the LAMP group (Laboratorio Argentino de Meteorología del esPacio), deployed in the Marambio base during the last Argentina Antarctic Campaign, from January to March 2019, which involved the installation of a cosmic rays detector based on water Cherenkov radiation. This detector is the first permanent Antarctic node of the LAGO Collaboration (Latin American Giant Observatory). The laboratory and the LAGO node are located at 64.24S-56.62W, and 200 meters above sea level. The facility also has a magnetometer and a meteorological station to measure the atmospheric pressure, external/internal temperatures, and humidity. The rigidity cut-off, due to the presence of the geomagnetic field, is lower at higher latitudes. Thus, the Antarctic continent has the unique advantage of combining a territory with infrastructure for the location of astroparticle detectors, and allowing the arrival of cosmic rays with the lowest energies to ground level. These particles are tracers that carry a large amount of information, linked with events (as Forbush decreases or Ground Level Enhancements) and physical processes in the Sun and the interplanetary space. We will present the activities developed during the installation of the Cherenkov detector at the Argentine Marambio Base of the Antarctic Peninsula, along with the creation of the Space Weather laboratory. We will also present the first calibrated observations of the flux of cosmic rays at this site, which will be provided in a public website, on a real-time base for operative Space Weather aims.
 1 Improving Space Weather Forecasting With Wide-Field EUV Observations Golub, L et al. p-Poster Leon Golub[1], Sabrina Savage[2] [1] Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, [2] NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Observation of the solar corona from L5/L1 using suitably-chosen EUV wavelengths offers the possibility of addressing two major goals that will improve our ability to forecast and predict geoeffective space weather events: 1.) improve our understanding of the coronal conditions that control the opening and closing of the corona to the heliosphere, and 2.) improve our understanding of the physical processes that control the evolution of CMEs and the formation of shocks from the solar surface out to beyond the nominal source surface. Forecasting models such as EUHFORIA find that predictions at 1 au are extremely sensitive to the initial conditions input to the model, and EUV imaging plus spectroscopic imaging data, such as that proposed by the COSIE investigation, can determine 8 of the 10 parameters used. This combination of EUV measurements can help to: i.) determine coronal structuring from its roots out to beyond 2.5 R_s; ii.) measure the changes in coronal connectivity; iii.) distinguish between and test solar wind models; iv.) establish the impact of pre-existing coronal structures on CME evolution; v.) confront theories of SEP acceleration and preconditioning; and vi.) establish the extent of energy release behind CMEs. 2 Using cubesats to monitor the evolution of the thermospheric temperature, density and composition, as well as their response to solar events, using the occultation technique. Dominique, M et al. p-Poster Marie Dominique[1], Edward Thiemann[2], Athanassios Katsiyannis[1], Hannah Holt[3] [1] Royal Observatory of Belgium/STCE, [2] Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics [3] University of Colorado The EUV solar emission is known to be the main driver of the ionization processes in the Earth thermosphere. As such, its evolution strongly impacts the densities and relative abundances of the main thermospheric constituents as well as the temperature. Solar transient events such as solar flares during which the EUV emission is dramatically increased can induce sudden changes into the thermospheric environment. Monitoring those changes is important to better understand the Sun-Earth coupling. However, some regions of the thermosphere are poorly observed, in particular the altitude range between 150 and 350 km known as the thermospheric gap. In a recent paper, Thiemann et al. 2017 used the measurements in occultation from the PROBA2/LYRA EUV radiometer Zr channel to determine the density profile of O + N2 in this altitude range. Doing so, they validated the occultation technique using modern EUV radiometers to probe this region. However, the LYRA occultation measurements are limited to specific latitudes and only happen during the winter period. Future solar occultation instruments can be improved with additional measurement channels. With the addition of a second channel, O and N2 composition can be isolated, while a third channel would add the capability of isolating O2. In this presentation, we consider the possibility to expand the LYRA measurements, by using instruments with a simplified design that could be embarked on cubesats, hence offering the opportunity to expand the time coverage, as well as the range of investigated latitudes. 3 Space weather from lunar orbit: The Deep Space Gateway as a platform for space plasma instruments De keyser, J et al. p-Poster J. De Keyser[1], I. Dandouras[2], R. A. Bamford[3], G. Branduardi-Raymont[4], D. Constantinescu [5,6], Y. Futaana[7], B. Grison[8], H. Lammer[9], F. Leblanc[10], A. Milillo[11], R. Nakamura[9], Z. Nemecek[12], L. Prech[12], E. Roussos[13], M. G. G. T. Taylor[14], and J. Carpenter[15] (1) Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Brussels, Belgium, (2) Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, Université de Toulouse / CNRS / CNES, Toulouse, France, (3) Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, UK, (4) Mullard Space Science Laboratory / UCL, Holmbury St Mary, UK, (5) Institute for Space Sciences, Bucharest, Romania, (6) Institute for Geophysics and Extraterrestrial Physics, TU Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany, (7) Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden, (8) Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic, (9) Space Research Institute / OEAW, Graz, Austria, (10) Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales / IPSL, Paris, France, (11) Institute for Space Astrophysics and Planetology / INAF, Rome, Italy, (12) Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic, (13) Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Göttingen, Germany, (14) ESTEC / ESA, Noordwijk, The Netherlands. Space weather monitoring instruments at Sun-Earth L1 allow to sample the pristine solar wind, to have contin-uous coverage, and to issue an advance warning in the case of a space weather event. Disadvantages include the need for a dedicated platform and the lack of serviceability. Recently another opportunity has popped up in the form of the Deep Space Gateway, a crewed platform to be built by ESA, NASA and other international partners in order to enable lunar surface excursions as well as remote and in situ measurements, orbiting the Moon (probably in an elongated orbit in the plane perpendicular to the Earth-Moon line). ESA has convened a Topical Team for Plasma Physics on the Gateway that has reviewed the science potential of hosted payloads. This is particularly relevant for space weather instruments because telemetry, power, volume, and mass constraints may be relaxed compared to a Sun-Earth L1 mission. Instrument serviceability may be a bonus. Solar wind: Observations from lunar orbit can directly sample the solar wind during most of the Moon’s orbit around the Earth, except when the Gateway is in the lunar wake or in the Earth’s magetotail. When the Moon is located in the morning local time sector, foreshock-processed solar wind is observed. While the electrostatic environment of the Gateway is expected to be far from clean, the solar wind particles with their energies of 200-400 eV should be detectable, unless the electrostatic perturbations are too strong. Interplanetary magnetic field: The Gateway can be a suitable platform for measuring the interplanetary magnetic field. The main challenge is to deal with electromagnetic compatibility issues by combining multiple sensors and possibly using a boom. Energetic particles: The lunar vicinity is typical of deep space and suitable for studying galactic cosmic rays, solar energetic particles, and Jovian energetic electrons. Monitoring radiation inside and outside the Gateway is essential. Magnetosphere: During 5–6 days around full Moon the Earth’s magnetotail and escaping particles of atmospheric origin can be studied, but the lack of time continuity makes this less interesting for space weather applications. However, the magnetosphere can be monitored through remote sensing, using ENA imaging, solar wind charge exchange X-rays, plasmasphere EUV imaging, or exosphere Lyman-α imaging. Such techniques are less sensitive to the Gateway’s electromagnetic environment. They will view the magnetosphere from a constantly different angle. This could be extremely interesting in combination with magnetospheric imaging from, for instance, a polar platform in view of the possibility to do stereoscopic imaging. Lunar environment: Measurements from the lunar orbit also provide information about the lunar exosphere and about the solar wind interaction with the lunar surface, adding the lunar environment to the realm of space weather prediction that has up to now focused on Earth and its immediate vicinity. 4 Modelling of Diffraction Effects in Solar Compact Coronagraphs Tappin, S et al. p-Poster S.J. Tappin and the SCOPE and Lagrange/COR teams RAL Space, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The performance of solar coronagraphs, and in particular of the proposed new generation of compact coronagraphs is critically dependent on the elimination of stray light. Because of the large field of view in such instruments, large angles of diffraction must alsot be handled, the modelling of diffraction in such systems is challenging. In this presentation, I discuss ways to tackle this challenge and present the results of the simulations. I focus on three main areas: 1) The performance of the external occulter and the occulter supports in the ideal case. 2) The effects of imperfections, especially of the occulter supports. 3) Diffraction by the exterior baffles. 5 Numerical study of plasma-object interaction: Debye-scale object Jao, C et al. p-Poster Chun-Sung Jao, Sigvald Marholm, Wojciech Jacek Miloch Department of Physics, University of Oslo The instrument-carrying rockets are designed to take measurements along its trajectory. For the high-resolution plasma density data, the multi-needle Langmuir probe (m-NLP) instrument is invented and carried on the sounding rockets for the investigation of cusp irregularities (ICI missions). In such in-situ measurements, it is well-known that the local plasma will be disturbed in the process of plasma-object interactions, with such as rocket body and booms, resulting in the influence on the plasma density measurements. Since the m-NLP instrument consists of two or more Langmuir probes, we found that the interaction between ionospheric plasma and single Debye-scale probe may also affect the measurement of other probe(s). To clarify this issue, a self-consistent Particle-In-Cell model is employed for the numerical studies. These studies can provide a reference for the future design of m-NLP instrument and the spacecraft system with similar spatial scale. 6 The Remote-Sensing Package for the Lagrange Mission Davies, J et al. p-Poster Jackie Davies[1], Stefan Kraft[2] and the Lagrange Remote-Sensing Consortium [1]RAL Space, [2]ESA/ESOC The Space Weather (SWE) element of ESA’s Space Situational Awareness (SSA) programme was established to address the increasing risks of solar effects on human technological systems and health. Within its Period 3, the SSA programme was extended to include an additional element (LGR), targeted towards the development of a space weather monitoring mission to the L5 point; it is envisaged that this mission, entitled Lagrange, will operate in coordination with a US-led mission to L1. Under the auspices of LGR, a number of Phase A/B1 studies have taken place; these studies, recently completed, covered the remote-sensing payload, the in-situ payload, and overall Lagrange system. The remote-sensing instrument package includes a Photospheric Magnetic Field Imager (PMI), EUV Imager (EUVI), Coronagraph (COR) and Heliospheric Imager (HI). In this presentation, we will review the instrument designs, including the control and processing philosophy, and the progress that was achieved towards the generation of an End-to-End simulator for the instrument package. 7 The COR and HI Instruments for the Lagrange Mission Davies, J et al. p-Poster Jackie Davies[1], Stefan Kraft[2] and the Lagrange COR and HI Teams [1]RAL Space, [2]ESA/ESOC The Space Weather (SWE) element of ESA’s Space Situational Awareness (SSA) programme was established to address the increasing risks of solar effects on human technological systems and health. Within its Period 3, the SSA programme was extended to include an additional element (LGR), targeted towards the development of a space weather monitoring mission to the L5 point; it is envisaged that this mission, entitled Lagrange, will operate in coordination with a US-led mission to L1. Under the auspices of LGR, a number of Phase A/B1 studies have taken place; these studies, recently completed, covered the remote-sensing payload, the in-situ payload, and overall Lagrange system. The remote-sensing instrument package includes a Photospheric Magnetic Field Imager (PMI), EUV Imager (EUVI), Coronagraph (COR) and Heliospheric Imager (HI). In this presentation, we will, firstly, provide an overview of the consolidated observational requirements for the visible-light coronal and heliospheric imaging instruments, COR and HI. We will then present the optical, mechanical, thermal and electrical design - as well as the operations concept - of these two instruments that have been developed to meet the instrument requirements and those of the mission. 8 Electric Field Detector for ionospheric plasma layers characterization Diego, P et al. p-Poster Piero Diego[1], Roberto Ammendola[2] Davide Badoni[3], Igor Bertello[4], Emiliano Fiorenza[5], Emanuele Galli[6], Fabrizio Nuccilli[7], Mirko Piersanti[8], Pietro Ubertini[9], Nello Vertolli[10] [1], [4],[5],[6],[7],[9],[10], INAF-IAPS, Rome, Italy, [2],[3], [8],INFN-Rome2, Rome, Italy An electric field detector (EFD), suitable to investigate electromagnetic phenomena in the near Earth environment, such as ionosphere-magnetosphere transition zone, has been developed in the context of the Chinese-Italian CSES collaboration in order to be installed on the second satellite. The instrument consists of four identical probes located at the tip of four booms deployed from a 3-axes stabilized spacecraftThe detector allows to measure electric fields in a wide band of frequencies extending from quasi-DC up to about 4 MHz, with a sensitivity of the order of 1μV=m in the ULF band. With these bandwidth and sensitivity, the described electric field detector represents a very performing and updated device for electric field measurements in space measurements that are of great interest in quantifying and modelling plasma convective pattern at the edge of both permanent and sporadic plasma structures such us the auroral oval or the low latitude Equatorial Electro Jet. Also the comprehension of refilling mechanism in the plasmasphere, during the recovery phase of a geomagnetic activity, will be improved with the analysis of these data. 9 Space weather monitoring of the in-situ environment from the Sun-Earth Lagrange points - INTERACTIVE POSTER PRESENTATION, Tuesday 19/11, 15:45 - 16:15 (no printed poster) Rae, J et al. p-Poster Jonathan Rae[1], LGR In-Situ Consortium[2] [1] Mullard Space Science Laboratory [2] Imperial College, Institut für Weltraumforschung (IWF), Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Isaware, Institute of Atmospheric Physics CAS, Airbus In-situ monitoring of the magnetic, plasma and radiation environment of interplanetary space is essential for any advanced space-weather early warning system. Near real-time measurements from well-chosen locations are extremely valuable in alerting satellite operators and utility providers on Earth when there is an increased risk of hazards from geomagnetic storms and other space weather effects. Space weather causes of interest include, but are not limited to, high speed solar wind streams, stream interaction regions, solar energetic particle events and interplanetary coronal mass ejections. Towards this goal, the European Space Agency initiated assessment studies for space weather monitoring missions to the L1 and L5 Solar Lagrangian points within its Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Programme. Phase A/B1 studies are now close to completion on space weather monitoring from an L5 mission as part of this programme. In order to provide effective forecasts and warnings, such missions must carry an in-situ instrument suite to measure the energetic particle environment, bulk solar wind conditions, solar X-ray emissions and the interplanetary magnetic field. We discuss science and measurement requirements for space weather monitoring missions at L1 and L5, including operational needs and key challenges for reliable in-situ environment monitoring. We also highlight the value of joint measurements at both L5 and L1 for improving existing models of the inner heliosphere that will, in turn, improve space weather prediction capabilities. Finally, we will present a brief overview of the types of instruments and techniques available for such a mission. 10 LGR-RS End to End Performance Simulator Architectural Design and First Results Grozea, I et al. p-Poster Ionut Grozea[1], Jose Barbosa[3], Ioannis Nestoras[2], Reuben Wright[2], Anca Maria Radulescu[1], Suzana Vladescu[1] [1]Deimos Romania, [2] Deimos UK, [3] RDA The primary objective of the Lagrange Remote Sensing mission (LGR-RS), located at L5, is to provide remote sensing measurements of the Interplanetary Medium together with Solar Observations at a location offset from Earth by ~60degrees in heliolongitude. The location away from Earth provides opportunities for increased forecast lead times of potentially hazardous phenomena. There will be 4 instruments on board the mission, the Photospheric Magnetic Field Imager (PMI), the Coronagraph (COR), the Heliospheric Imager (HI) and the Extreme Ultra-Violet Imager (EUVI). In the early phases of a mission the End-to-End Performance Simulator (E2ES) supports the definition and the verification of the Space Segment requirements. It is a useful tool to assess the mission performance and support the consolidation of the technical requirements and conceptual design, as well as to allow end-users to check the fulfilment of mission requirements. The E2ES consists of a set of software modules simulating the space segment, its data output and the subsequent ground retrieval (level 1 and Level 2). The execution of these software modules needs to be orchestrated including in particular invocation and provision of input data. The definition of a set of standardized conventions and requirements, which the modules have to adhere to, allows then the use of a common orchestrating framework. In particular the LGR-RS E2E Simulator Software will provide the following key capabilities: a) Assess the LGR-RS mission performance, b) Simulate mission products, d) Validate the overall LGR-RS E2E pipeline, e) Cross-validate the operational data pipeline. The purpose of this project aims at supporting the definition of an E2E simulator for the Remote Sensing segment of the LGR mission. Here we present the overall architecture of the defined E2ES for all the instruments as well as the first results of the overall processing chain. 11 Calibration and first results from the operative cosmic rays observatory at Marambio base Santos, N et al. p-Poster N.A. Santos[1], S. Dasso[1,2,3], A.M. Gulisano[3,4], O. Areso[2], M. Pereira[2], M. Ramelli[2], for the LAGO collaboration[5] [1] UBA FCEyN, Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmósfera y los Océanos (DCAO), Argentina, [2] IAFE/UBA CONICET, Argentina, [3] UBA FCEyN, Departamento de Física (DF), Argentina, [4] Instituto Antártico Argentino/ DNA, Argentina, [5] http://lagoproject.net During the last Argentine Antarctic campaign (January-March, 2019), an Antarctic Space Weather Laboratory was deployed by the LAMP group (Laboratorio Argentino de Meteorología del esPacio) at the Marambio base. The main instrument installed was a cosmic ray detector based on water Cherenkov radiation. This detector is the first permanent Antarctic node of the LAGO Collaboration (Latin American Giant Observatory). The LAGO Project is an extended Astroparticle Observatory at global scale. It is mainly oriented to basic research in three branches of Astroparticle physics: the Extreme Universe, Space Weather phenomena, and Atmospheric Radiation at ground level. The laboratory and the LAGO node are located at 64.24S-56.62W and 200 m a.s.l. In this work, we will present long term (continuous and uninterrupted 6 month measurements) calibrated observations from the new cosmic ray detector. Since data-taking began in March 2019, the detector has been recording continuously the count rates of low energy secondary cosmic ray particles. The first calibrated observation of the flux, on a one hour (real time) base, is presented for operative Space Weather studies. It will be provided on a public web site. Fluxes observed at this LAGO node in Marambio will be compared with fluxes observed by neutron monitor stations located in places having similar rigidity cut-off to the one at Marambio. We will also study the daily modulation of the flux using the superposed epoch analysis. 12 PROBA2/LYRA soft x-ray response after ten years in space Dammasch, I et al. p-Poster Ingolf E. Dammasch[1], Marie Dominique[1], Janet Machol[2] [1] ROB, [2] NOAA LYRA has been observing the Sun in EUV and SXR since 2010. For most of this time, the LYRA team has published a GOES proxy on its website, since the curves are relatively similar. After the recent GOES re-calibration, it was checked whether the conversion factors used are still valid. The result was that the GOES re-calibration apparently did not make a difference, but the conversion factors had actually changed continuously since 2011: LYRA's degradation in SXR was qualitatively comparable to EUV, only much slower. The data can be confirmed by flare campaigns using LYRA's three (differently degraded) units. The development will be presented and explained by different spectral degradation. - In addition, it was noticed that there was quite a variation in the factors to convert between GOES and LYRA flare strengths. This can be explained by the instruments' different spectral intervals, and estimating flare temperatures. 13 Energetic Particle Spectrometers for In-situ Space Radiation Characterization: The Energetic Particle Telescope (EPT), its Proposed Miniaturization and the 3D Energetic Electron Spectrometer (3DEES) Benck, S et al. p-Poster Sylvie Benck [1] , Stanislav Borisov [1] and Mathias Cyamukungu [1,2] [1] Center for Space Radiations, Earth and Life Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Place Louis Pasteur, 3, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, [2] G-HiTech, Rue de la source 25, B-1435 Mont-Saint-Guibert, Belgium Science class space radiation spectrometers are embarked on satellites to collect data for various objectives including validation / improvement / development of radiation environment models, characterization of the dynamics of the space radiation environment as well as provide space weather services. The EPT is actually flying on-board PROBA-V as technology demonstration payload. The operational principle of the EPT leads to an instrument with an excellent in-flight particle discrimination capability and immunity to contamination by off-Field of View particles. It provides flux spectra of electrons (0.5–8 MeV), protons (9.5–300 MeV) and α-particles (38–1200 MeV). The measurements are conducted continuously with 2 s time resolution and transmitted to the ground 3 times per day, where within several hours they are processed till scientific data products. Now that the concept has been validated to lead to the expected performances, it is decided to develop a miniaturized version of the instrument. The objective of the miniaturised EPT (mEPT) development is to produce a compacter radiation telescope of size ~200 cm^3, targeted power consumption 1 W, but whose performances in particle detection are comparable to that of the EPT. The 3D Energetic Electron Spectrometer (3DEES) concept should lead to a compact and modular science-class spectrometer allowing angle resolved high electron energy coverage (0.1 – 10 MeV) using a few sensors. Its baseline set-up provides capabilities to measure angular distribution of electrons and protons at 12 angles spanning over 180° in two planes. The 3DEES also allows measurements of proton fluxes (4-50 MeV), while performing absolute electron-proton discrimination for protons up to 200 MeV. Although designed as instrument to deliver data for detailed scientific studies, its data can find direct application within Space Weather services, in the same way as EPT. The poster will give a general presentation of the three instruments wherein the main assets and achievements of the EPT will be briefly revisited and the miniaturized instrument with its key features will be introduced. The 3DEES in its latest status will also be presented together with its performances that are expected to be attained. 14 THE SAMM Telescope – A robotic prototype for a world wide network Speziali, R et al. p-Poster R. Speziali[1], A. Di Paola[1], L. Dal Sasso[2], M. Centrone[1], M. Oliviero[3], M. Stangalini[4], R. Piazzesi[1], V. Mauriello[2], L. Terranegra[3] [1] - INAF - Astronomical Observatory of Rome, [2] Avalon Instruments, [3] INAF - Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte, [4] - ASI - Italian space Agency SAMM (Solar Activity MoF Monitor) is a robotic instrument that has been developed to monitor the solar activity delivering high cadence magnetograms and dopplergrams at different heights of in the solar atmosphere. Based on Na and K magneto optical filters (MOF), SAMM provides a “tomographic” view of the magnetic structures of the solar atmosphere that can generate explosive events usually associated with large amount of particle and matter ejections in the space environment that eventually interact with the Earth magnetosphere producing a variety of effects. Powerful solar storms can affect both space and ground based infrastructures like satellites, avionics navigation systems, power plants and electrical grids. In this scenario the SAMM observatory has been realized to be a “node” that can be replicated in a world-wide network with the aim to give a continuous coverage of the sun situation. This network will represent a powerful tool to constantly monitor the evolution of the solar magnetic field providing unique set of data that are useful for space weather forecasting. Being able to forecast these events enough in advance (even few hours) is a fundamental task to put in place mitigation strategies to reduce the potential catastrophic impact on vital infrastructures on earth. This project has been funded by the Italian Ministry of Economic Development (MiSE) and is a partnership between INAF – Observatory of Rome/Naples and the Avalon Instruments (former Dal Sasso). After three years of development we present the first prototype of the SAMM telescope that has been recently installed on top of the Avalon Instruments headquarters and is now in the commission phase. 15 The Solar Polar Observing Constellation (SPOC) Mission: Exploration and Long-term Monitoring of the Solar Poles Berger, T et al. p-Poster Thomas Berger[1], Nicole Duncan[2], Gordon Wu[2], Eric Turner[2], Natasha Bosanac[3], Thomas Smith[3], Neal Hurlburt[4], Clarence Korendyke[5] [1]University of Colorado at Boulder, Space Weather TREC, [2]Ball Aerospace Corporation, [3]University of Colorado, Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research, [4]Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, [5]Naval Research Laboratory The Sun’s polar regions remain one of its last unobserved frontiers. While the Ulysses mission flew in a Jupiter-Sun orbit and made three in-situ measurements of solar polar wind outflow, it lacked imaging instrumentation and therefore could not observe polar magnetic fields, convective flows, or high-speed solar wind coronal hole source regions. Solar Orbiter (planned for launch in 2020) will reach an ecliptic inclination of about 30 degrees and will include imaging instruments to glimpse the polar regions out of the ecliptic for the first time, but telemetry bandwidth will limit its ability to return helioseismic or magnetic field dynamics data. Observations of the magnetic field, convective flows, and coronal outflow conditions in the solar polar regions are the keys to accurately modeling and forecasting the solar cycle and solar wind conditions and CME arrival times at Earth. Here we describe the Solar Polar Observing Constellation (SPOC), a mission that will for the first time enable continuous high-resolution imaging of magnetic field dynamics, high-latitude helioseismology, and coronal mass ejection tracking from a near-circular polar heliocentric orbit. SPOC will consist of two identical spacecraft, each equipped with a Compact Magnetic Imager (CMI, derived from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager), the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Compact Coronagraph (CCOR), and in-situ solar wind and energetic particle instruments. Falcon Heavy launch vehicles will place the SPOC spacecraft into a Jupiter gravitational assist (JGA) orbit, achieving an 88-degree ecliptic inclination orbit, with the spacecraft passing over the solar poles within 4 years after launch. Ion engines will subsequently reduce the eccentricity of the orbits to below 0.05 at approximately 0.9 AU within 6 years after launch. Orbital phasing will place the spacecraft over alternate poles to enable continuous monitoring of the polar regions with operational-level redundancy of systems. The inclusion of CCOR will enable visualization and tracking of coronal mass ejections from above (or below) the ecliptic for the first time, greatly enhancing our ability to forecast CME arrival times at Earth or Mars. SPOC combines polar region trail-blazing, long-term polar helioseismology and magnetic imaging, and operational space weather monitoring in a single mission. Along with planned missions to the L1 and L5 Lagrangian points in the ecliptic, SPOC will enable an approach to the long-standing goal of continuous full-sphere measurements of the solar magnetic field, solar wind and CME outflow, and energetic particle flux – a goal that cannot be achieved with observations from the ecliptic plane alone. 16 Radiation Monitoring - Can we predict the future? Williams, J et al. p-Poster James Williams[1], Kevin Wiggins[2], David Schofield[3], Dr Keith Ryden[4], Dr Gemma Attrill[5], Dr Graham Routledge[6], Alex Fortnam[7] [1]SSTl, [2]SSTL, [3]SSTL, [4]University of Surrey, [5]DSTL, [6]DSTL, [7]DSTL Payloads hosted by a constellation of two cubesats flying at an altitude of 500Km; detecting Particle Events, Dose Rate and Total Dose effects. Featuring two different methods of flare detection. 17 Radiation Monitor on-board Aalto-1 CubeSat: inflight calibration and first results Vainio, R et al. p-Poster Rami Vainio[1], Philipp Oleynik[1], Jan Gieseler[1], Aalto-1/RADMON Team[1,2,3,4] [1]Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, Finland, [2] Department of Future Technologies, University of Turku, Finland, [3] School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland, [4] Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Finland RADMON is a small radiation monitor designed and assembled by students of the University of Turku and University of Helsinki. It is flown on-board Aalto-1, a 3-unit CubeSat in a sun-synchronous polar orbit with 97.4$^\circ$ inclination at about 500 km altitude. The detector unit of the instrument consists of a silicon solid-state detector and a CsI(Tl) scintillator and utilizes the \textDelta{E}-E technique to determine the total energy and species of each particle detected by the instrument. RADMON has been measuring integral particle intensities from October 2017 to May 2018 with electron energies starting at low-MeV and protons from 10~MeV upwards. We present the characterization of its response through extensive simulations within the Geant4 framework. We show electron and proton intensity maps obtained over the mission period. In addition, the response of RADMON measurements to magnetospheric dynamics are analyzed, and the electron observations are compared with corresponding measurements by the PROBA-V/EPT mission. 18 TOPCAT II Mitchell, C et al. p-Poster Cathryn Mitchell[1], Robert Watson[1], Talini Pinto Jayawardena[2], Gemma Attrill[3] and Alex Agathanggelou[3] 1. University of Bath, UK, 2. Athena Space, UK, 3. Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, UK Two new tri-band GPS receiver payloads, Topside Ionosphere and Plasmasphere Computer Assisted Tomography, (TOPCAT II), will allow remote measurement of electron densities between low-earth orbit (LEO) satellites and GPS satellites. The payloads will installed on the forthcoming Coordinated Ionospheric Reconstruction Cubesat Experiment (CIRCE) satellites. The payloads were successfully qualified for operating in a LEO environment through a rapid development and series of ground testing from February to July 2019. Phase data collected by the receiver will be used to image the electron density of the ionosphere and plasmasphere using tomography and data assimilation from the University of Bath Multi-Instrument Data Assimilation System (MIDAS) algorithms. TOPCAT II serves as a technology demonstration for low-cost GPS receivers that will enable continuous global coverage of the ionosphere and plasmasphere for space weather nowcasting and forecasting. The paper describes the development and performance of the new instrument. 19 Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer for the CIRCE mission Kataria, D et al. p-Poster Dhiren Kataria[1], Anasuya Aruliah[1], Rahil Chaudery[1], Saeed Vahedikamal[1], Andrew Malpuss[1], Duncan Rust[1], Bob Redman[1], Craig Leff[1], Junayd Miah[2], Gemma Attrill[2] [1]Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, United Kingdom , [2]Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire, SP4 0JQ, United Kingdom The Coordinated Ionospheric Reconstruction CubeSat Experiment (CIRCE) is a 2 x 6U CubeSat mission to the upper thermosphere carrying a suite of remote sensing and in-situ payloads. Details of the mission are presented in a contributed talk to session 12 on Space Weather Instrumentation at this conference. This paper describes the Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS), one of the in-situ particle instruments on CIRCE. The INMS is a miniaturised analyser designed for sampling of low mass ionised and neutral particles in the spacecraft ram direction with the instrument resolutions optimised for resolving the major constituents in the lower thermosphere, i.e., O, O2, NO and N2. 11 INMS instruments were developed for the EU QB50 CubeSat constellation mission, 9 were launched on their respective educational CubeSats and to date, data has been returned over a six month period from the one working QB50 CubeSat. CIRCE will fly the two remaining flight instruments from QB50. The INMS has two electrostatically selectable sensors with different instrument parameters. Each of the sensors consists of a collimator/ion filter, an ioniser and a charged particle analyser with a common charged particle detector at the exit of the analyser. Charged particles entering the aperture can be rejected in the ion filter region by applying voltages to its electrodes. The ionizer consists of an electron source, an energy selector and a beam steerer and provides a beam of 50eV electrons that is steered into the charge exchange region. The current transmitted through is monitored by a Faraday cup at the exit of the region and can be actively controlled through a feedback loop. The spectrometer consists of a cylindrical geometry analyser and a Channel Electron Multiplier (CEM) detector. When voltages are applied to the ion filter and the ionizer is turned on, ions are rejected in the filter whereas the neutral particles are ionized and their energy is subsequently selected in the analyser. On the other hand, when both are turned off, neutral particles pass through a gap in the analyser whereas the ions have their energy selected in the analyser. The instrument is typically operated alternatively in ion and neutral particle detection mode. With an energy resolution of 4% and 9% for the two sensing modes, the analyser is designed to provide clean separation of the major constituents in both the upper and lower thermosphere. The paper will present an overview of the instrument, present and discuss ground performance results, discuss lessons learnt from in-flight experience with QB50 and discuss some of the proposed science to be expected from the CIRCE mission. 20 ESA Next Generation Radiation Monitor on-board ERDS-C GEO: Report and preliminary analysis of the first measurements - INTERACTIVE POSTER PRESENTATION, Thursday 21, 15:45-16:15 (no printed poster) Sandberg, I et al. p-Poster I. Sandberg, W. Hajdas, R. v. Gijlswijk, P. Nieminen, J. Luntama, S. Aminalragia-Giamini, C. Papadimitriou, , M. Tykal, D. Heynderickx, T. Watterton, H. Evans, A. Lupi and M. Heil The first unit of the Next Generation Radiation Monitor (NGRM) on board of the European Data Relay System (EDRS-C) satellite is ESA’s latest asset for monitoring the space environment in a geostationary Earth orbit (GEO). NGRM has been designed to measure protons from 2 MeV up to 200 MeV and electrons from 100 keV up to 7 MeV. Following the successful launch of the spacecraft on 6 August 2019 and during the transfer trajectory orbit, the NGRM unit made its first measurements in space while passing through the proton and the electron belt towards the GEO orbital position 31 degrees East. Using these first measurements and the numerical response functions of the electron and the proton detector subsystems, a series of studies are undergoing for the evaluation of the NGRM performance and the derivation of the environmental proton and electron flux spectra. Measurements and first results of the preliminary analysis are presented. Within the next months, the NGRM Ground Processor system will be fully developed, as a part of the Space Weather (SWE) Data Centre, and integrated in the Payload Operation Data Centre (PODC) at ESOC providing real-time information on the GEO environment. The use of real-time NGRM data will distinctively improve the forecasting of the GEO radiation environment and facilitate the development of related forecasting models. In addition, NGRM flux products will contribute to the validation and improvement of the existing space radiation environment models. As a part of the evaluation studies, an in-flight campaign involving comparisons between EDRS-C/NGRM with measurements from radiation detectors on board of GOES-16 (orbital position 75.2 W), GOES-17 (orbital position 137.2 W) and Himawari-8-9 (orbital position 140.7 E) will take place within 2020. The NGRM was conceived as follow-on to the highly successful ESA Standard Radiation Environment Monitor (SREM), which has been flown on a number of ESA missions since 2000. Compared to SREM, NGRM provides a much higher energy resolution, albeit being a smaller and lighter unit. Beyond this first flight of the NGRM on EDRS-C, follow-on units are planned to be flown on a number of spacecraft as part of the MetOp-SG, MTG and Sentinel- 6 programmes. The development of NGRM started within a European consortium led by RUAG space, together with the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), ONERA, EREMS, and IDEAS. The in-flight analysis of EDRS-C/NGRM measurements and the development of the Ground Processor software system at ESA/ESOC is led by Space Applications & Research Consultancy (SPARC) together with Solenix, DH Consultancy and OHB-Hellas. The development of the NGRM has been supported by ESA/ESTEC under the contract AO/l- 6659/10/NL/AT. The development of the NGRM Ground Processor is supported by ESA/ESOC under the contract 4000127954/19/D/CT.