Session P1 - Ground-Based Space Weather Monitoring Networks
Pietro Zucca, onsite (ASTRON - Nederlands institute for radio astronomy), Eoin Carley (Dias - Dublin Institute for advanced studies), Monica Laurenza (INAF- Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali Area di Ricerca Roma Tor Vergata)
Monitoring space weather from the ground is to date still the most reliable source of space weather monitoring. This typically means smaller latency in the data retrieval and a more robust reliability, especially for space-based instruments that might be vulnerable to the same space weather conditions they are monitoring. However, while a single space-based instrument may be able to monitor the Sun and the Sun-Earth environment continuously, ground based instruments suffer from having a limited view of the Sun due to the night time and the local weather conditions, or they are limited by the earth's magnetosphere, requiring instrumentation at different latitudes. Therefore, Space weather monitoring networks are key to ground-based monitoring to assure a 24h or full spectral/energy coverage or to guarantee observations due to bad weather conditions. In this session, we encourage contributions from existing networks of space weather ground-based monitoring, including radio instruments (solar monitoring, IPS, ionosphere), GIC monitoring (magnetometers, power grids), optical instruments and neutron monitors networks, as well as space weather studies and tools conducted/operated with ground-based instrument networks.
Monday October 24, 09:00 - 14:00, Poster AreaTalks
Tuesday October 25, 08:45 - 10:15, Water HallClick here to toggle abstract display in the schedule
Talks : Time scheduleTuesday October 25, 08:45 - 10:15, Water Hall
|08:50||The Solar Activity Monitor Network - SAMNet||Erdelyi, R et al.||Oral|
| ||Robertus Erdelyi and SAMNet Team|
| ||SP2RC, Univ of Sheffield|
| ||The Solar Activity Magnetic Monitor (SAMM) Network (SAMNet) is a UK-lead international consortium of ground-based solar telescope stations. SAMNet, at its full capacity, will continuously monitor the intensity, LoS component of magnetic and Doppler velocity fields at multiple heights in the lower solar atmosphere, i.e. from the photosphere to the upper chromosphere. SAMM sentinels with identical telescopes equipped with magneto-optical filter (MOFs) may take observations in K~I and Na~D spectral bands.
The objectives of SAMNet are to cater LoS magnetic and Doppler data for space weather research and forecast. The goal is to achieve an operationally sufficient lead time of e.g. flare warning of up to 12 hours, and provide much sought-after continuous synoptic maps (e.g., LoS magnetic and velocity fields, intensity) of the lower solar atmosphere with spatial resolution limited only by seeing or diffraction limit, and with a cadence of 10-min. The individual SAMM sentinels link into their master HQ hub at Gyula Bay Zoltan Solar Observatory (GSO) where data received from all the slave stations are processed and flare warning is issued up to 26 hrs in advance. We will present briefly the MOF concept, the science behind forecasting with SAMNet data and show the superb first-light images. WE also argue why such a ground-based system may complement reliable and very economically space-borne data. |
|09:00||US Ground based Observations from the National Science Foundation ||Winter, L et al.||Oral|
| ||Lisa Winter|
| ||National Science Foundation |
| ||The National Science Foundation is the only US federal agency devoted to supporting basic research. The Division of Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences supports ground based observations through a number of facilities and projects. Among these, solar research is supported through the Simpson Neutron Monitoring Network, Big Bear Solar Observatory, and the Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array. Magnetospheric physics is supported with magnetometer networks, AMPERE, and SuperMAG. These observational networks will be summarized.|
|09:10||The new Kp-like, open-ended, high-cadence, global geomagnetic Hpo indices||Kervalishvili, G et al.||Oral|
| ||Guram Kervalishvili, Jürgen Matzka, Jan Rauberg, Yosuke Yamazaki, Claudia Stolle|
| || GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany,  Leibniz Institute of Atmospheric Physics at the University of Rostock, Kühlungsborn, Germany|
| ||The global geomagnetic three-hourly Kp index is a measure of planetary geomagnetic activity ranging from 0 to 9 and given in units of thirds (e.g., 2–, 2o, 2+). Kp is extensively used in the space physics community, both for scientific and operational purposes, and has proven to be a significant and reliable index. Still, Kp has two important limitations, the temporal resolution (three-hourly interval) and the upper limit of 9o (geomagnetic activity is not accurately represented under extremely disturbed conditions). Thus, the new global geomagnetic indices that overcome these limitations are needed.
We developed the new open-ended, high-cadence, Kp-like, global geomagnetic Hpo index family that consists of the half-hourly Hp30, hourly Hp60 and linearly scaled ap30, ap60 indices. These open-ended Hpo indices are based on the data of the same 13 geomagnetic observatories and are designed to represent planetary geomagnetic activity similarly to Kp but with higher time resolution and without an upper limit. The near real-time Hpo indices and their values back to 1995 (1-minute digital data are not available from all observatories before that) are available for download under the CC BY 4.0 license.
Here, the frequency distributions of the occurrence of Hpo with Kp, operational capabilities and examples of these indices during the strongest geomagnetic storms since 1995 are presented. Also, the relationships between Hpo indices and Newell's solar wind coupling function, AE and PC indices are analysed and compared to those with Kp.|
|09:20||Incremental development of LOFAR for spaceweather||Zhang, P et al.||Oral|
| ||Peijin Zhang,Pietro Zucca, Kamen Kozarev, Mohamed Nedal|
| ||Institute of Astronomy of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria ASTRON Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Dwingeloo, The Netherlands|
| ||The Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) radio telescope has made great contributions in solar and space weather studies in recent years. The high spatial, temporal, and frequency resolution helps reveal unprecedented details of the emission in the solar and space weather activity. While LOFAR is a radio astronomy instrument, the observation resource is shared by seven key science projects (KSPs). Thus, it is not possible to perform long-term dedicated monitoring observations for space weather. The Solar and Space Weather KSP (SSW-KSP) of LOFAR has recently begun developing a set of dedicated solar and space weather observation routines, based on the existing LOFAR instrument. Here, we present the observation modes of LOFAR for monitoring space weather: the tied array beam (TAB) imaging, interferometric imaging, and the incremental development of LOFAR for space weather (IDOLS). We discuss the calibration procedure and the statistical results of radio burst observations.|
|09:30||Status and future of the worldwide network of neutron monitors||Sapundjiev, D et al.||Oral|
| ||Christian T. Steigies , Rolf Bütikofer ,Danislav Sapundjiev ,Karl-Ludwig Klein ,Olga Kryakunova ,the NMDB consortium|
| || Universität Kiel, Germany, Universität Bern, Switzerland, Royal Meteorological Institute, Belgium, Observatoire de Paris, France, Institute of Ionosphere, Kazakhstan|
| ||Routinely measurements of cosmic ray intensity at ground-level were started during the International Geophysical Year (IGY) 1957-1958
by the development of a worldwide network of standard neutron monitors.
These so-called IGY neutron monitors were invented by John A. Simpson in the late 1940’s.
In the 1960’s Carmichael designed the NM64 neutron monitor with a larger counting rate to improve the counting statistics.
Many stations later upgraded their detectors to this NM64 type.
In the early days of neutron monitors the data were shared by printed books and later with magnetic tapes, floppy disks and CDs.
With the advent of the internet the neutron monitor hourly data were provided by world data centers with a time lag of typical one month.
Only in 2008/2009 the EU FP7 funded the Neutron Monitor database (NMDB)
which makes available 1-minute neutron monitor data in real-time as well as different neutron monitor data products for the public.
Several space weather services routinely rely on the availability of the neutron monitor data from the worldwide network,
and NMDB is continuing to provide real-time data even ten years after the official end of the project.
In this presentation we will report the current developments, the status and the prognosis for the future of the network.
We will discuss the major challenges that the consortium faces and
will emphasize on the needs and requirements in order to maintain high quality real-time data provision.|
|09:40||Pre-operational Space Weather Services at the DLR Institute for Solar-Terrestrial Physics||Kriegel, M et al.||Oral|
| ||Martin Kriegel, Paul David, Dmytro Vasylyev, David Wenzel, Youssef Tagargouste, Jens Berdermann|
| ||German Aerospace Center e.V., Institute for Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Department of Space Weather Effects|
| ||In times of highly precise and increasingly autonomous systems and applications, the influence of space weather on their system performance is increasingly becoming the focus of current research and development. The complex monitoring and research of space weather in its variety of phenomena and with its effects, for example in satellite technology, aerospace, telecommunications and navigation, is an increasingly important mission.
The DLR Institute for Solar-Terrestrial Physics in Neustrelitz is investigating the influence of space weather on both critical systems and services such as GNSS or RF communications, as well as ground- and space-based infrastructures such as power grids or satellites. Of outstanding importance is the efficient implementation of the interfacing between the increasing scientific expertise and the most diverse user requirements from the national and international public and private sectors, academia and industry.
As an essential core component of this interface, the working group "Pre-operational Services" develops and operates the "Ionosphere Monitoring and Prediction Center (IMPC)" in cooperation with the "German Remote Sensing Data Center" of the DLR. With its special combination of scientific know-how on GNSS based remote sensing and modelling of the ionosphere, instrumentation (e.g. high rate GNSS receiver network, Global Ionospheric Flare Detection System (GIFDS), CALLISTO spectrometer) and the use of state-of-the-art data processing technologies, the IMPC contributes significantly to monitoring the impact of space weather on today's technologies in near-real time and to avoiding or reducing it through the application of a wide range of products and services.
This contribution will present IMPC's pre-operational services and their incorporation into relevant national and international networks (e.g. NOAA-SWPC RTSW, ESA S2P, PECASUS). Furthermore, the unique instrumentation, applied technology approaches and already developed and planned products and services will be presented.
|1||Norwegian sensors for detection of solar radio bursts at 1 to 1.6 GHz||Jacobsen, K et al.||Poster|
| ||Knut Stanley Jacobsen |
| || Norwegian Mapping Authority|
| ||Two radio spectrometer systems has been deployed in Norway.
They supply data to the international solar radio burst network e-Callisto,
and is also nationally to determine the source of observed disturbances in technical systems.
The monitored frequencies have been chosen to cover some aviation radar systems, as well as GNSS frequencies.
The properties and location of the sensors, and examples of observed radio bursts, are presented.
|2||Solar Radio Spectro-polarimeter (50 - 500 MHz)||Kumari, A et al.||Poster|
| ||Anshu Kumari, G. V. S. Gireesh, C. Kathiravan, V. Mugundhan[3,4], Indrajit V. Barve , R. Ramesh , and C. Monstein]5]|
| || Space Physics Research Group, University of Helsinki, Finland,  Indian Institute of Astrophysics, India,  Raman Research Institute, India,  University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, Istituto Ricerche Solari "Aldo e Cele Daccò", Switzerland.|
| ||Almost all the transient non-thermal radio emissions from the solar corona are either partially or fully circularly polarized due to the propagation of radio waves in the magnetically permeated coronal plasma medium. Observing the polarization signatures of such transients over a broad radio frequency
range would be of help to estimate B as a function of radial height, on possible occasions, to a certain extent. In order to do so, we designed and developed a Cross-polarized Log-Periodic Dipole Antenna (CLPDA), an integral part of a radio spectro-polarimeter, that can work in the 50-500 MHz frequency range. We carried out tests to characterize it at the Gauribidanur observatory, Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore, India. The above frequency range is chosen because it corresponds to a heliocentric height range ≈ 1.03 < r < 2.5 R⊙ (R⊙ = photospheric radius) wherein the numerous
coronal non-thermal transients, in the decimeter-meter wavelength range, which are associated with space-weather effects, are observed to originate.
The CLPDA is used as a frontend to determine the strength and sense of polarization of the received radio signal. The uncertainty involved in the determination depends on the polarization-isolation (PI) or cross-talk between the two orthogonal components of a CLPDA. Some of the recent advancements made in the antenna design concepts at high frequencies (∼GHz) were adopted to reduce the PI at low frequencies (∼ MHz). Throughout the above frequency band, the CLPDA has a gain, return loss and PI of ≈6.6 dBi, ≲-10 dB and ≲-27 dB, respectively. The average PI of the CLPDA varies from -30 dB to -24 dB over an azimuthal angle range 0◦ to ±45◦ (reference position angle=0◦) within which the observations are performed regularly.|
|3||Moving solar radio bursts (Type IIs and Type IVs) and their association with coronal mass ejections||Morosan, D et al.||Poster|
| ||Diaan Morosan, Anshu Kumari, Emilia Kilpua, Farhad Daei, Abdallah Hamini|
| || University of Helsinki,  Observatoire de Paris |
| ||Solar eruptions, such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs), are often accompanied by accelerated electrons that can in turn emit radiation at radio wavelengths. This radiation is observed as solar radio bursts. The main types of bursts associated with CMEs are type II and type IV bursts that can sometimes show movement in the direction of the CME expansion, either radially or laterally. Here, we present statistical studies of Type II, Type IV and moving radio bursts (that include imaging observations of Type II and Type IV bursts) in the past solar cycles with the aim to determine how often CMEs with certain properties are accompanied by each type of bursts. This is done in order to ascertain the usefulness of using radio observations and images in determining the onsets of CMEs and estimating the early CME expansion in the case of moving bursts. We find that the majority of metric radio bursts are associated with fast CMEs (>500 km/s linear leading edge speed) and wide CMEs (>60 degrees in width). In Solar Cycle 24 we also find that the majority of Type II (95%), Type IV (81%) and moving bursts (all but one) had a white-light CME association. The results of these statistical studies show that the occurrence of CMEs may be a necessary condition for the generation of these bursts. The majority of moving bursts, in particular, are also associated with wide CMEs, indicating that strong lateral expansion during the early stages of the eruption may play a key role in the occurrence of the radio emission observed.
|4||Low-Cost Ionospheric Monitoring in Cyprus ||Haralambous, H et al.||Poster|
| ||Ion-Anastasios Karolos, Stylianos Bitharis, Christina Oikonomou, Christos Pikridas and Haris Haralambous|
| || Cloudwater Ltd, Cyprus  Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Geodesy and Surveying, Greece  Frederick Research Center, Cyprus|
| ||One of the principal techniques for ground-based ionospheric monitoring is based on high-grade Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. Recently, the availability of low-cost commercial GNSS modules encouraged their exploitation in the frames of several positioning engineering applications. The aim of this study is to investigate the capability of a low-cost GNSS receiver in ionospheric monitoring with a performance comparable to that of a high-grade receiver with clear advantages in cost, size and power consumption.
A comparative study between two different high-grade geodetic receivers, collocated at two different locations in Cyprus with two low-cost, dual-frequency GNSS Receivers based on the sino gnssK803 OEM product is undertaken to explore the potential of the low-cost devices for sensing the ionosphere. The housing and operation firmware of the low-cost receivers were developed by Cloudwater Ltd. Measurement campaigns for several days were carried out in order to investigate the signal strength and total electron content (TEC) estimation at the two locations. GNSS signal splitters were used to share the same choke ring antenna output between the low-cost and high-grade geodetic receiver at each location.
|5||Combined space weather monitoring with high fidelity low-frequency spectro-polarimetric imaging with SKA precursor and Aditya-L1 mission||Kansabanik, D et al.||Poster|
| ||Devojyoti Kansabanik, Divya Oberoi, Surajit Mondal[2,1]|
| ||National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Pune, India; Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, USA |
| ||Low-frequency radio observations have been expected to serve as a powerful tool for Space Weather (SW) observations for decades. Radio observations are sensitive to a wide range of SW-related observations ranging from emissions from coronal mass ejections (CMEs) to the solar wind. The ground-based radio observatories allow the gathering of high sensitivity data at high time and spectral resolution, which remains a challenge for most space-based observatories. While radio techniques like Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) are well established, radio imaging studies have remained technically challenging. This is now changing with the confluence of data from instruments, like the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), and the robust unsupervised analysis pipelines developed by our group. This pipeline delivers full Stokes radio images with unprecedented fidelity and dynamic range. This will serve as a powerful tool for coronal and heliospheric studies and here we showcase some of them. An example includes measuring plasma parameters and magnetic fields of CMEs out to 8.5 solar radii using gyrosynchrotron modeling of full Stokes spectra. We will share the current status of the objective to measure the heliospheric Faraday rotation towards numerous background linearly polarised radio sources with the Sun in the field of view. We envision that in coming years, with the availability of new generation radio instruments combined with India's Aditya-L1 solar mission, will mark the start of a new era in Space Weather modeling and prediction.|
|7||Real-time type II/III radio burst detection with the e-CALLISTO radio antenna at the Observatory Lustbühel Graz||Hoefig, L et al.||Poster|
| ||Lukas Höfig, Manuela Temmer, F. Koller, L. Drescher, Thomas Suntinger, Sabrina Michlmayer, Desmond Grossmann, C. Monstein + PK Group SummerTerm2021|
| || Institute of Physics, University of Graz, A-8010 Graz, Austria  FHNW, Switzerland|
| ||The almost vertical signatures in radio spectra covering large frequency ranges are so-called type III radio bursts. These are created by fast electrons ejected from active regions in the wake of flare events and are associated to open magnetic field along which particles propagate out into interplanetary space. Another type of radio signatures is type II, which are associated with shocks generated by Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). We use radio spectra from multiple e-CALLISTO radio stations to detect a) type III bursts, distinguishing between confined and eruptive flares and b) type II bursts, identifying fast CMEs. Detecting these radio signatures in real-time is an important input for Space Weather models and alerts. We present statistical results for the detection rates and an outlook of the implementation of the algorithm to the e-CALLISTO station at the University of Graz in Austria as well as to the entire international network.|
|8||On the source sizes of fine structures of type II radio bursts using LOFAR ||Kumari, A et al.||Poster|
| ||Anshu Kumari, Diana E. Morosan, Emilia K. J. Kilpua, Leopekka Sarasta, Pietro Zucca|
| || Space Physics Research Group, University of Helsinki,  ASTRON, Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy|
| ||The magnetic field dominates the structure and dynamics of the solar corona and it is the primary driver of Space weather. Radio observations are one of the most common approaches to diagnosing the magnetic field in the solar atmosphere. One of the direct signatures of explosive solar phenomena, such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in radio wavelengths, is called metric type II radio bursts. Type II bursts originate from plasma waves converted into radio waves at the local plasma frequency and its harmonics. These radio bursts can be considered a direct diagnosis of MHD shocks in the solar atmosphere. These bursts can be used to study the kinematics, energetics, and dynamics of the associated eruptive events. With state-of-the-art radio instruments such as LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR), it has now been possible to study these bursts and the structures within them in great spectral, temporal and spatial resolutions. We studied the source sizes and shapes of the fine structures of type II radio bursts observed with LOFAR and their variation with frequency in metric wavelengths. |
|9||Monitoring Severe Space Weather with Networked UK Soil Moisture Sensors||Baird, F et al.||Poster|
| ||Fraser Baird, Keith Ryden, Alex Hands|
| || Surrey Space Centre, University of Surrey|
| ||48 small neutron detectors are deployed across the UK, forming the COSMOS-UK network. This network uses the moderation of neutrons by water to calculate the soil moisture around the sensor. The source of the ground-level neutrons detected by COSMOS-UK sensors is cosmic ray air showers. Therefore, like ground-level neutron monitors, COSMOS-UK detectors can measure variations in the ground level neutron flux which are caused by variations in cosmic rays driven by space weather.
This contribution will introduce the COMSOS-UK network, and a new indoor neutron monitoring facility at the University of Surrey which uses the same sensors. The sensitivity of the network to space weather events – mainly Ground Level Enhancements, and Forbush decreases associated with ICME impacts – is assessed. Finally, a case study examining the response of the network and indoor detectors to the severe space weather events of October and November 2021 is presented.|
|10||Space Weather Related Research at Belgrade Muon Station ||Veselinović, N et al.||Poster|
| ||Nikola Veselinović, Mihailo Savić,Aleksandar Dragić, Vladimir Udovičić, Dimitrije Maletić, Dejan Joković, Radomir Banjanac, David Knežević, |
| ||Institute of Physics Belgrade|
| ||Belgrade Muon station started monitoring cosmic ray flux in early 2000s, and has continued this activity until this day with several upgrades of instrumental setup along the way. Measurements are done simultaneously at ground level and at shallow-underground, thus recording variations of cosmic rays flux at different rigidities, which is suitable for studies of energy dependence of Forbush decreases and other transient or quasi-periodic cosmic-ray variations. To correct measured muon count rates for atmospheric effects, two new empirical methods have been developed, one based on principal component analysis and the other using machine learning techniques and multivariate analysis. Application of these corrections increases detector sensitivity and allows for a more detailed study of different variations of primary cosmic ray flux. Here, we give an overview of the laboratory, experimental setup and research done on various cosmic ray and space weather related topics, ranging from description and usage of developed tools, to collaboration with other laboratories in studying cosmogenic radionuclides and analyzing impact of high energy solar events on the lower ionosphere and subsequent atmospheric events - Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances. Finally, we discuss a planned future collaboration that involves a creation of a worldwide net of portable muon detectors, as well as potential participation in CubeSat and high altitude missions.|
|12||MAG-SWE-DAN||Willer, A et al.||Poster|
| ||Jan Wittke , Anna Willer , Gerhard Schwarz , Hermann Opgenoorth , Lars W. Pedersen, Nils Olsen, Patrik Johansson  , Poul Erik Holmdahl Olsen , Jan Oechsle  |
| || Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU),  Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Denmark, Sweden,  Umeå University (UMU), Sweden|
| ||The purpose of the MAG-SWE-DAN project is to narrow the existing gaps in ground magnetometer coverage in Scandinavia by establishing 10 geomagnetic stations in Sweden, Denmark and Greenland and extending the temporal sampling of four additional stations in the Faroe Islands, Greenland and Denmark. All stations provide near-real time data to monitor the geomagnetic conditions, thereby expanding the existing Space Weather monitoring system.
In addition to the improved spatial coverage, the 1-second time resolution of the MAG-SWE-DAN stations capture signals from the short‐lived nature and high amplitudes of geomagnetic spikes and substorms. As the magnetic signature of these processes can be very local, a dense spatial coverage of observations is required, which guided us in the selection of the sites.
In this presentation we report on the progress of the project and present data from the extended ground magnetometer network. In addition, we give a short report and insights on maintenance and deployment of the magnetometer network, which has been in production for several months now.
|13||Talos Dome: a new INGV geomagnetic station on the Antarctic plateau, far from the permanent observatories||Santarelli, L et al.||Poster|
| ||L. Santarelli, P. Bagiacchi, G. Benedetti, D.Di Mauro, S. Lepidi|
| ||Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Rome, Italy|
| ||Polar region is very important for studies of the upper atmosphere and magnetosphere as part of the Sun-Earth relationships and space weather, because in this area the solar wind particles can penetrate the Earth's atmosphere and reach the lower altitudes. The measurement of the geomagnetic field fluctuations in polar regions is therefore an important research tool for the study of magnetospheric dynamics.
The distribution of geomagnetic observatories at planetary scale strongly favors the northern hemisphere, for the predominant presence of industrialized countries. In Antarctica INGV runs the geomagnetic observatory at Mario Zucchelli Station (MZS) and, as part of an Italian-French collaboration, the geomagnetic observatory at Concordia Station (DMC).
In order to integrate observatory data and to monitor with more spatial detail the Antarctic region, in the frame of the PNRA Project “Temporary magnetometer network for longitudinal and latitudinal monitoring in Antarctica”, we carried out the installation of an autonomous magnetic station, realized at the INGV laboratories, suitable to operate at low temperatures during the Antarctic winter, with a single annual intervention for maintenance and data unloading.
Such station includes a vector magnetometer specifically manufactured by Lviv Institute (Ukraine) for very low temperatures and a low-power system supplied by batteries charged by wind generators and solar panels. It was installed in December 2020 at Talos Dome, a remote site on the Antarctic Plateau, about 300 km away from the permanent observatory at MZS.
Talos Dome, together with MZS and New Zealand Observatory Scott Base (SBA), constitutes a network along the 80°S geomagnetic parallel, which is interesting for the study of the longitudinal propagation of geomagnetic signals. Data from the new station, together with data from permanent observatories, will contribute to improve the analysis of the magnetospheric dynamics and the ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling.
We achieved the goal to obtain a long data series, keeping the station working even during the austral winter when the temperature can reach -60°C: we recorded almost 11 months of 1 Hz data in one year.
In this poster we present the characteristics of the station and of the data it provides, aiming at using them for studies in the framework of space weather.
|14||UKRAINIAN GROUND-BASED SPACE WEATHER MONITORING NETWORK||Liashchuk, O et al.||Poster|
| ||Oleksandr Liashchuk, Yuriy Rapoport[1,2,3], Oleksiy Parnowski[1,4], Volodymyr Reshetnyk, Asen Grytsai , Yuriy Andryshchenko, Maksym Matveev |
| ||  Main Center of Special Monitoring (MCSM), National Space Facility Control and Tests Center, State Space Agency of Ukraine,  Physics Faculty, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv,  Space Radio-Diagnostic Research Centre, University of Warmia and Mazury (UWM) in Olsztyn, Poland;  Space Research Institute National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and State Space Agency of Ukraine|
| ||Ukraine has considerable experience and capabilities in space weather. Many studies of space weather are carried out both on the territory of the mainland and UAS "Akademik Vernadsky" on the Antarctic Peninsula. Nowadays in Ukraine there is no unified network for monitoring the state of space weather, however, there are scientific schools in the country with a fairly long history in the field of solar-terrestrial physics with their own achievements in the field of fundamental and applied research, their own infrastructure and highly qualified specialists. The work to unite the efforts of different groups to create space weather information services with a single center was started before the war. The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NASU) and the State Space Agency of Ukraine (SCAU) supported the initiative of a number of research institutes to establish a space weather monitoring center based on the Main Center for Special Monitoring (MCSC) where a distributed geophysical monitoring network already exists. Even now, information about space weather disturbances is provided on-line around the clock to state authorities.
The initial focus was on geomagnetic data. The first positive results were obtained: for the first time in world practice, it was possible to obtain a forecast of magnetic disturbances in a separate magnetic observatory (development of the Institute for Space Research). However, to date, at least two observatories, unfortunately, have been destroyed. In addition to the existing variometers, the MCSM installed two magnetotelluric stations, which did not expand the network, but expanded its technical capabilities. Currently, data from an extensive network of GNSS stations of NASU, SSAU and commercial companies are involved in processing and analysis. A model of an inexpensive ionosonde (developed by the Radio Astronomy Institute) is being created, which is planned to be integrated into the monitoring network.
To date, a network of VLF monitoring stations is being actively deployed in the MCSM, which does not require significant financial costs. VLF transmitter signals travel long distances in an Earth-ionosphere waveguide with relatively low attenuation, providing a sensitive means to detect changes in the lower ionosphere's conductivity caused by natural phenomena. Two specialized stations with a set of antennas have been created and installed, including a Danube single-wave vibrator antenna, a whip antenna, and two electric loop ante|
|15||The Space Weather Data Monitoring at the Institute of Earth Physics and Space Science||Árpád, K et al.||Poster|
| ||Arpad Kis(1), István Lemperger(1), Veronika Barta(1), Kitti Berényi(1), Zoltán Vörös(1), Judit Muraközi(1) |
| ||(1) Institute of Earth Physics and Space Science|
| ||The space weather-related measurements at the geophysical observatory have a long heritage: the magnetic and the telluric measurements were started in 1957. On our poster, we present the latest developments in our measurement and data management system that can meet the most modern needs of our times. |